How fast are your disks? Find out with fio.

Disk performance primarily depends on the interface, disk usage, RAM caching, disk controller and media. The following drives have been tested with fio:

erlangen:/home # inxi -zMSCDm 
System:    Kernel: 5.16.0-1-default x86_64 bits: 64 Console: pty pts/1 Distro: openSUSE Tumbleweed 20220114 
Machine:   Type: Desktop Mobo: ASRock model: Z170 Pro4S serial: <filter> UEFI: American Megatrends v: P3.50 date: 06/23/2016 
Memory:    RAM: total: 31.29 GiB used: 5.28 GiB (16.9%) 
           Array-1: capacity: 64 GiB slots: 4 EC: None 
           Device-1: ChannelA-DIMM0 size: No Module Installed 
           Device-2: ChannelA-DIMM1 size: 16 GiB speed: 2133 MT/s 
           Device-3: ChannelB-DIMM0 size: No Module Installed 
           Device-4: ChannelB-DIMM1 size: 16 GiB speed: 2133 MT/s 
CPU:       Info: Quad Core model: Intel Core i7-6700K bits: 64 type: MT MCP cache: L2: 8 MiB 
           Speed: 1512 MHz min/max: 800/4200 MHz Core speeds (MHz): 1: 1512 2: 1415 3: 1458 4: 1513 5: 1403 6: 1182 7: 1273 
           8: 1521 
Drives:    Local Storage: total: 7.28 TiB used: 3.77 TiB (51.8%) 
           ID-1: /dev/nvme0n1 vendor: Samsung model: SSD 970 EVO Plus 2TB size: 1.82 TiB 
           ID-2: /dev/sda vendor: Crucial model: CT2000BX500SSD1 size: 1.82 TiB 
           ID-3: /dev/sdb vendor: Western Digital model: WD40EZRX-22SPEB0 size: 3.64 TiB 
erlangen:/home #

Performed runs:

fio --name=random-write --ioengine=posixaio --rw=randwrite --bs=4k --size=4g --numjobs=1 --iodepth=1 --runtime=60 --time_based --end_fsync=1 > 4k-4g-1j-32G 
fio --name=random-write --ioengine=posixaio --rw=randwrite --bs=64k --size=256m --numjobs=16 --iodepth=16 --runtime=60 --time_based --end_fsync=1 > 64k-256m-16j-32G 
fio --name=random-write --ioengine=posixaio --rw=randwrite --bs=1m --size=16g --numjobs=1 --iodepth=1 --runtime=60 --time_based --end_fsync=1 > 1m-16g-1j-32G 


SSD 950 Pro 512 GB 
1m-16g-1j-32G:  WRITE: bw=1065MiB/s (1117MB/s), 1065MiB/s-1065MiB/s (1117MB/s-1117MB/s), io=64.0GiB (68.7GB), run=61522-61522msec 
64k-256m-16j-32G:  WRITE: bw=1286MiB/s (1349MB/s), 78.9MiB/s-86.9MiB/s (82.8MB/s-91.1MB/s), io=77.8GiB (83.5GB), run=60054-61887msec 
4k-4g-1j-32G:  WRITE: bw=504MiB/s (529MB/s), 504MiB/s-504MiB/s (529MB/s-529MB/s), io=31.2GiB (33.5GB), run=63287-63287msec 

Replaced by 
SSD 970 EVO Plus 2 TB 
1m-16g-1j-32G:  WRITE: bw=2324MiB/s (2437MB/s), 2324MiB/s-2324MiB/s (2437MB/s-2437MB/s), io=139GiB (150GB), run=61450-61450msec 
64k-256m-16j-32G:  WRITE: bw=2928MiB/s (3070MB/s), 165MiB/s-194MiB/s (173MB/s-204MB/s), io=173GiB (186GB), run=60194-60632msec 
4k-4g-1j-32G:  WRITE: bw=351MiB/s (368MB/s), 351MiB/s-351MiB/s (368MB/s-368MB/s), io=20.9GiB (22.5GB), run=61065-61065msec 

CT2000BX500SSD1 2 TB 
1m-16g-1j-32G:  WRITE: bw=211MiB/s (222MB/s), 211MiB/s-211MiB/s (222MB/s-222MB/s), io=21.3GiB (22.8GB), run=102963-102963msec 
64k-256m-16j-32G:  WRITE: bw=393MiB/s (413MB/s), 20.3MiB/s-28.8MiB/s (21.3MB/s-30.2MB/s), io=24.8GiB (26.6GB), run=60979-64419msec 
4k-4g-1j-32G:  WRITE: bw=129MiB/s (135MB/s), 129MiB/s-129MiB/s (135MB/s-135MB/s), io=11.9GiB (12.7GB), run=94156-94156msec 

1m-16g-1j-32G:  WRITE: bw=94.4MiB/s (99.0MB/s), 94.4MiB/s-94.4MiB/s (99.0MB/s-99.0MB/s), io=9.92GiB (10.7GB), run=107582-107582msec 
64k-256m-16j-32G:  WRITE: bw=90.4MiB/s (94.8MB/s), 5608KiB/s-8577KiB/s (5743kB/s-8783kB/s), io=8449MiB (8859MB), run=86566-93500msec 
4k-4g-1j-32G:  WRITE: bw=94.3MiB/s (98.9MB/s), 94.3MiB/s-94.3MiB/s (98.9MB/s-98.9MB/s), io=8192MiB (8590MB), run=86837-86837msec
**i3-4130:~/benchmark #** inxi -zMSCDm  
**System:    Kernel:** 5.16.1-1-default x86_64 **bits:** 64 **Console:** pty pts/1 **Distro:** openSUSE Tumbleweed 20220120 
**Machine:   Type:** Desktop **Mobo:** ASRock **model:** Z87 Pro3 **serial:** <filter> **UEFI:** American Megatrends **v:** P2.90 **date:** 07/11/2014 
**Memory:    RAM:****total:** 15.29 GiB **used:** 2.1 GiB (13.7%) 
           **Array-1:****capacity:** 32 GiB **slots:** 4 **EC:** None 
           **Device-1:** ChannelA-DIMM0 **size:** No Module Installed 
           **Device-2:** ChannelA-DIMM1 **size:** 8 GiB **speed:** 1600 MT/s 
           **Device-3:** ChannelB-DIMM0 **size:** No Module Installed 
           **Device-4:** ChannelB-DIMM1 **size:** 8 GiB **speed:** 1600 MT/s 
**CPU:       Info:** Dual Core **model:** Intel Core i3-4130 **bits:** 64 **type:** MT MCP **cache:****L2:** 3 MiB 
           **Speed:** 1092 MHz **min/max:** 800/3400 MHz **Core speeds (MHz):****1:** 1092 **2:** 999 **3:** 1000 **4:** 1200 
**Drives:    Local Storage:****total:** 698.65 GiB **used:** 70.87 GiB (10.1%) 
           **ID-1:** /dev/sda **vendor:** Crucial **model:** CT250MX500SSD1 **size:** 232.89 GiB 
           **ID-2:** /dev/sdb **vendor:** Samsung **model:** SSD 850 EVO 500GB **size:** 465.76 GiB 
**i3-4130:~/benchmark #**

Crucial model: CT250MX500SSD1:

**i3-4130:~/benchmark #** grep WRITE * 
1m-16g-1j:**WRITE**: bw=231MiB/s (242MB/s), 231MiB/s-231MiB/s (242MB/s-242MB/s), io=16.0GiB (17.2GB), run=70996-70996msec 
4k-4g-1j:**WRITE**: bw=159MiB/s (167MB/s), 159MiB/s-159MiB/s (167MB/s-167MB/s), io=9.79GiB (10.5GB), run=62932-62932msec 
64k-256m-16j:**WRITE**: bw=345MiB/s (362MB/s), 20.4MiB/s-23.7MiB/s (21.4MB/s-24.9MB/s), io=24.6GiB (26.4GB), run=72729-72835msec 
**i3-4130:~/benchmark #**

Samsung model: SSD 850 EVO 500GB:

**i3-4130:/mnt/home/benchmark #** grep WRITE * 
1m-16g-1j:**WRITE**: bw=400MiB/s (419MB/s), 400MiB/s-400MiB/s (419MB/s-419MB/s), io=26.0GiB (28.0GB), run=66746-66746msec 
4k-4g-1j:**WRITE**: bw=302MiB/s (316MB/s), 302MiB/s-302MiB/s (316MB/s-316MB/s), io=18.9GiB (20.3GB), run=64036-64036msec 
64k-256m-16j:**WRITE**: bw=473MiB/s (496MB/s), 26.1MiB/s-32.9MiB/s (27.3MB/s-34.4MB/s), io=30.0GiB (32.2GB), run=60958-64831msec 
**i3-4130:/mnt/home/benchmark #**