Why so many kernels?


I wanted to delete one kernel, so I thought I had only 2 as usual on other linux distros but I see so many kernels here; (IS it possible to remove some ? except default)

:**~**> rpm -qa | grep kernel

openSUSE has splitted the kernel-firmware in several files, you will see them.

Only 1 kernel is installed:


ok great, thank you

Checking here (a Leap 15.3 system)

 ls /boot/vmlinuz*

Those are the actual kernels installed. And the first (plain “vmlinuz”) is just a symbolic link to the most recent of the others.

Packages with the string “kernel” as part of the name are not all kernels. What you listed were firmware packages.


Yes, not seen…

And its kernel:head???

yes the 5.17, it is not ok :wink:

Kernel-firmware had grown to be a big bandwidth hit, often for no reason. e.g. on this Intel IGP 15.3, kernel-firmware isn’t even needed:

# rpm -qa | grep kernel-firmware
# rpm -qi kernel-default-5.3.18-150300.59.49.1.x86_64 | grep Size
Size        : 155,982,433
# zypper info kernel-firmware-nvidia | grep Size
Installed Size : 1.1 MiB
# zypper info kernel-firmware-intel | grep Size
Installed Size : 2.5 MiB
# zypper info kernel-firmware-amdgpu | grep Size
Installed Size : 8.4 MiB
# zypper info kernel-firmware | grep Size
Installed Size : 612.4 MiB
# zypper se -s kernel-firmware | grep mwar | wc -l

Contrast a 15.2 using NVidia GPU and only FOSS:

# rpm -qi kernel-default-5.3.18-lp152.106.1.x86_64 | grep Size
Size        : 402,143,091
# rpm -qi kernel-firmware | grep Size
Size        : 514,275,829
# zypper se -s kernel-firmware | grep mware | wc -l

For 15.3, what’s packaged where, or required, was given an efficiency treatment that resulted in a selection of smallish kernel-firmware packages, most or all of which are unnecessary on any given installation. A lot less is needed, or automatically installed, but the option to install it all remains, at further inflated cost. Of course, this increase in efficiency was developed through TW a while before 15.3 development.

What issues are you seeing with 5.17? The biggest one I have is that it often will not resume from suspend. It’s so locked up that sys-request won’t force a reboot, only a hard shutdown seems to work. Are there other issues?


no problem here so far