Thanks Henk for your advice.
Could you please give some idea how could I backup my data ?
Am not asking for external drive (it is one of many solutions) backup, is there anything built in with OpenSuse so that I could run and copy to another internal secondary drive ?
My question may sound “stupid”, but I need a faster action and easier solution to protect my applications and data.
Sounds a bit negative, I know. But I did not say for nothing that you should have organised your backups long ago. In fact from the day you use the system. A system is not well managed when there is not a backup policy (and a policy that is put into real doing things).
Backing up to another disk of your /home partition (no need IMHO to backup the system, a reinstall is almost as quick) can e.g. be done using rsync.
But first you should sit down and design a policy. What are the cases you want to backup for. A file deleted by accident and to be retrieved from the backup? A file modified beyond recognistion two weeks ago and you find out now and you want it back from last month’s backup? A broken disk? A broken and burnt out sysstem? A burnt out house?
There is no single backup solution.
1 is totally optional no need
2 yes and no it must be mounted to be seen but basically yes
3 Yes just don’t format the backup partition and mount it as /home
4 well depends on how comfortable you are with the command line dd is actually easier if you understand it and you can always just put the backup procedure in a script makes it real simple then
Thanks gogalthorp for your helpful reply.
I’ll go for dd.
According to the description at https://en.opensuse.org/SDB:Home_backup, I understand, the very first step would be to unmount both target and destination partitions.
Now a question: how can I unmount my /home partition from terminal, while terminal itself is under /home ?
You can’t I don’t think the umount is needed but you could log into init level 3 ( ie terminal mode) as root and umount the partitions (except for root / of course). Or you could boot from a CD and copy with that.
At the end of making backup of /home partition (using dd utility command, Figure-4 of this link](http://ddrelated.blogspot.ca/)) from the old HDD to a newly added HDD, I encounter the following error message:
linux-z583:~ # dd if=/dev/sdb3 of=/dev/sda4
dd: reading '/dev/sdb3': Input/Output error
40271798+0 records in
40271798+0 records out
296191607808 bytes (206 GB) copied, 8828.07 s, 23.4 MB/s
What I have done are as below:
Added a new internal HDD (1TB in size, to an available SATA port on the motherboard)
Disconnected the old HDD which has OpenSuse 12.1 running (by disconnecting the SATA power and data cable from motherboard)
Installed OpenSuse 12.3 to the newly added HDD after making 3 partitions while installing OpenSuse 12.3 (one partition is 250 GB intended for /home backup from old HDD)
After installation of the OpenSuse 12.3 to the new HDD, the old HDD was connected to the motherboard (SATA cable and PS cable connected)
Started the OpenSuse 12.1 (from old HDD) and logged in as root from the login GUI
…additional information to my previous posting (#10):
I get this message on the startup console while starting 12.3:
doing fast boot
Creating device nodes with udev
Welcome to emergency mode ! logging in type "journalctl -b" to view
system logs, "systemctl reboot" to reboot, "systemctl default" to try again
to boot into default mode,
GIve root password for login:
Note: If I over write the previous install (12.3) by re-installing, everything works fine !
It may be a user ID problem the user ID may need to be changed on the files copied from the old system.
User name is just a convenience the real identification is through the UID number. If you log in tothe new system and the UID number of your home directory does not match the new one for the new install (assuming the same user name) then it will not start. Be default the first user UID is 1000.
No limitation but possible problems the desktop and other configuration files may not work right or get changed between two different versions of the software. so it can break stuff. Best to have 2 different users.
what does your /etc/fstab look like??
I’m confused about what exactly you have done. You can use the chown command to change ownership if that is the real problem.
I am repeating my problem again (hope I could explain properly):
Currently, I am using 12.3 without any issue as user jrahman (UID=1000). My only problem is, I don’t see the cloned home directory of user jrahman at HDD2, which was cloned from the older HDD1 running 12.1
Current partitions are (in both Older and newer HDD) as below.
**sdb = HDD1 (old and retiring HDD with 12.1)**
sdb1 = swap (5GB)
sdb2 = / (20 GB)
sbd3 = /home (250 GB)
**sda = HDD2 (new HDD with 12.3):**
sda1 = / (20 GB)
sda2 = /home (300 GB)
sda3 = (I don't know, why this was not created while installing 12.3)
sda4 = Ext4 (250 GB) <-- I made this partition partition, intending to clone the sdb3 (/home of HDD1, because, HDD is retiring soon)
Unpartitioned space left = 360 GB
Yes, sda is the new drive.
It doesn’t have any swap yet.
I thought, cloning is better than copy. That is why, I ran dd to clone /home (sdb3) of older drive to sda4, but when mounted, I don’t see /home of user jarhman, but I could see other user’s data
I don’t know why swap partition was not created on the new HDD2 (sda). I choose manual partition while installing 12.3 and allocated 5 GB, but now I don’t see
Yes, eventually, the old HDD1 (sdb) is retiring and I’ll remove it, once I could successfully clone /home partition somewhere in the new drive
Can I manually create a swap partition now out of “unpartitioned” space in sda (new drive) ?