Add “init=/bin/sh” to the boot options (press ‘e’ at the boot menu, search for the line starting with “linux” and append it there, then press ‘F10’ to boot), you should get to a minimal text mode system then, where you can fix your system.
Am I going about this the wrong way?
Should I have:
used some type of boot disk
That would be another option, yes, but it should not be necessary.
get the disk ID and then edit /etc/fstab?
Yes, the new disk definitely has a different UUID, so the system cannot mount /home.
You have to correct the entry in the fstab. Maybe just use /dev/sdb1 or similar for a start, or find out the correct device with “ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid”.
If in doubt, post the output of that command, and the content of the fstab.
then restore my the files to my home partition?
If you want to have them back, yes.
You should at least be able to login with an empty home as well though.