If it can give you some info about how many space you need, here’s an example of a pretty full openSUSE 11.2, with KDE, Gnome, XFce, LAMP, openOffice, Eclipse, PostGresQL, lots of devel patterns and a couple Vbox Virtual Machines :
Boot is pretty heavy 1 gig is not really needed. Also you really don’t need a separate boot partition unless you contemplate fancy multi-boot situations just let it live on root. Good idea to have a separate home and possibly a separate data and or VM partition but it all depends on how you intend to use the machine. There really is no one size fits all configuration.
You should keep more than 100MB for /boot because when the kernel gets upgradted, it will need more space to keep both the versions.
Also, /boot need not be an independent file system and you very well use just the / (root) file system and /boot will be under that.
Also, why do you need 5GB swap?
Ok Linux is different from Windows. In Windows partitions are mounted as drive letters. In Linux (Unix) partitions are mounted anywhere in the file system you want. So a directory like say /var which is part of the normal install can be mounted to a separate partition. If no mount point is defined for a default directory then the data simply is put on the root partition. If you have defined a mount point then the data goes to that partition. This feature is used buy the Suse default install to mount a separate partition to the /home directory mount point. In this way the users personal data and settings are kept separate from the operating system and system programs. This is useful for upgrades and such. Even switching distributions. You simply do not format the partition with your home data and mount it as /home.
In special circumstances it may be useful to the administrator to treat other directors the same way but for the new user it really should not be an issue unless you have special needs.
IMO raid 0 (striping) is very dangerous because you have doubled your chances of losing all your data. It should only be used when you absolutely must increase throughput. Lose either drive and all your data is gone.