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Thread: What Form of Linux is Used?

  1. #1

    Question What Form of Linux is Used?

    Hello,

    What form of Linux is used in opensuse? How is it defined?

    I understand that Linux is defined by its kernel. But what I don't understand is how the particular construction defines a particular Linux version, as opposed to defining a non-Linux kernel. I sometimes get the impression that Linux is simply defined as any OS that uses the free GNU software for construction. Can someone enlighten me?

    Regards

  2. #2
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    Default Re: What Form of Linux is Used?

    Quote Originally Posted by anon_private View Post
    What form of Linux is used in opensuse? How is it defined?
    Pretty much the same as any linux. But perhaps I don't understand the question.

    I understand that Linux is defined by its kernel. But what I don't understand is how the particular construction defines a particular Linux version, as opposed to defining a non-Linux kernel.
    Again, I am confused by the question.

    The linux version (for example, I am using openSUSE Leap 42.3 at the moment), does not directly depend on the kernel version. The openSUSE team makes a choice of software to include. And the kernel choice is part of that.

    A linux kernel is one descended from the original from Linus Torvalds.

    I sometimes get the impression that Linux is simply defined as any OS that uses the free GNU software for construction. Can someone enlighten me?
    The various BSD variants of unix also use a lot of free GNU software. And linux also uses some free software that originated in the BSD systems.
    opensuse Leap 15.0; KDE Plasma 5;
    opensuse tumbleweed; KDE Plasma 5 (test system);

  3. #3
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    Default Re: What Form of Linux is Used?

    I wonder if you might be assisted by this simple explanation: https://johnrhudson.me.uk/linux.html

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    Default Re: What Form of Linux is Used?

    If you go back a few years, there was probably more balkanization between Linux distros and their kernels.

    For the last decade or so, there have been efforts to co-operate and standardize particularly in areas of extreme complexity and difficulty almost certainly to produce a better product with better efficiency. So, for instance today you'll find a well-developed flow from mainline kernel development to the individual distros, and commonly desired functionality like device drivers are now integrated into the kernel. Instead of being the differentiator, the kernel today can be considered the distributor of things every distro needs.

    Distros are still able to differentiate from one another, though.
    Today's microkernel architecture allows distros to add or remove kernel parts if they wish.
    Probably more often seen and obvious is that everything that's not part of the kernel can be whatever one wishes, which is described in John Hudson's above post.

    In fact,
    You can probably slice and dice the multitude of ways distros are different in more ways that can generally be described, so trying to do so might be an impossible task.

    Of course,
    Wikipedia will still contain articles that will try to do just that, eg

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compar..._distributions

    But I'm sure that anyone can create their own list of parameters and build a really interesting distro list of their own.

    Now, I'll offer a short list of kernel-related factors that help to differentiate distros just to show what I just said above isn't completely true...

    RHEL offers a kernel that's better tuned for medium to large servers.
    I don't remember the distro Google uses for their Cloud, but they developed their own custom kernel to support the extremely high networking loads between each node.
    Some distros like Ubuntu LTS and CentOS don't introduce new kernels as often as they generally become available to make systems rock solid for longer lengths of time, instead preferring to backport security fixes to the specific kernel they wish to support. Others like openSUSE distribute latest kernels very quickly (I've found generally within 3 mths, TW even sooner).

    IMO and HTH,
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    Default Re: What Form of Linux is Used?

    openSUSE Leap 42.3 uses Linux kernel 4.4

    Code:
    uname -r
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_kernel
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_distribution

    ...and systemd 228

    Code:
    systemd --version
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemd

    The package manager engine is ZYpp, which is used by zypper and YaST.

    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZYpp

  6. #6

    Default Re: What Form of Linux is Used?

    On 2018-03-25, anon private <anon_private@no-mx.forums.microfocus.com> wrote:
    > What form of Linux is used in opensuse? How is it defined?
    > <SNIP>
    > Can someone enlighten me?


    It's important to know the differences between GNU, Linux, GNU/Linux, and GNU/Linux distribution.

    GNU is _almost_ the entire operating system including the shell (bash), compiler collection (gcc), as well as important
    code libraries (glibc), tools (libtool), utilities (binutils), and bootloader (grub). The reason why I say _almost_ is
    because it does not (normally) include a kernel (see below).

    Linux is a kernel. It is (mostly) written in C and allows the operating system to interface with hardware. It source
    code is necessary for compiling the kernel from scratch and the source headers are necessary for compiling modules (e.g.
    for drivers) against a particular kernel version.

    GNU/Linux is the combination of GNU and Linux and therefore a complete operating system. GNU/Linux alone does not
    include a package manager to automate dependency association for installing applications or a desktop environment such
    as KDE or GNOME. Note that Android is not a GNU/Linux operating system because while it uses the Linux kernel it does
    not use GNU.

    A GNU/Linux distribution is a GNU/Linux implementation which includes a package manager and optionally a desktop
    environment. The distribution maintainers construct/adapt a package maintainer to look after dependencies so that if a
    user specifies installation of one package that depends on another, both are installed. These packages can the form of
    source code (for `source' distributions) or pre-compiled binaries (for `binary' distributions).

    The most common GNU/Linux distribution form are Debian-based binary distribution that uses the APT package management
    tool and such distributions include Ubuntu and Mint. The openSUSE distribution is a binary GNU/Linux distribution using
    an adapted form of the RPM package management system called zypp, which can invoked from command line (using zypper) or
    GUI (using YaST). In addition to YaST, notable features of openSUSE include equal support for different desktop
    environments (notably KDE and GNOME), and the openSUSE Build Service. By default openSUSE does not include
    DRM-associated batteries (unlike Mint) but these are easily installed by adding the relevant repositories using
    zypper/YaST.

    Professional-grade development for openSUSE is assured as a result of its association with Enterprise versions (SLES).
    Due to openSUSE's RPM heritage, it is capable of being fully compliant with the the Linux Standard Base (unlike
    Debian-based distributions). For these reasons and those listed in the previous paragraph, I believe openSUSE is the
    best free GNU/Linux binary distribution you will ever encounter.

  7. #7

    Default Re: What Form of Linux is Used?

    Quote Originally Posted by ravas View Post
    openSUSE Leap 42.3 uses Linux kernel 4.4

    Code:
    uname -r
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_kernel
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_distribution

    ...and systemd 228

    Code:
    systemd --version
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemd

    The package manager engine is ZYpp, which is used by zypper and YaST.

    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZYpp
    Thank you

    My present OS kubuntu uses 4.4.0-116-generic

    I have a problem connecting a livedvd of 26.04.4 (kubuntu) via wi-fi to the router - it keeps disconnecting. Since the kernels are similar am I likely to have the same problem with the opensuse livedvd?

  8. #8

    Default Re: What Form of Linux is Used?

    According the Distrowatch opensues is based onIndependent.

    What does this mean?

  9. #9

    Default Re: What Form of Linux is Used?

    On 2018-03-26, anon private <anon_private@no-mx.forums.microfocus.com> wrote:
    >
    > According the Distrowatch opensues is based onIndependent.


    Some GNU/Linux distributions are based on others. For example Linux Mint is based on Ubuntu, which is based on Debian.

    Although S.u.S.E. was originally based on SlackWare, openSUSE is no longer dependent on any other GNU/Linux
    distribution. That is why Distrowatch states that it is `independent'.

  10. #10

    Default Re: What Form of Linux is Used?

    On 2018-03-26, anon private <anon_private@no-mx.forums.microfocus.com> wrote:
    <SNIP>
    > I have a problem connecting a livedvd of 26.04.4 (kubuntu) via wi-fi to
    > the router - it keeps disconnecting. Since the kernels are similar am I
    > likely to have the same problem with the opensuse livedvd?


    No. Because there is no openSUSE live media (including DVD). You have to install openSUSE to hard drive.

    Whether or not Kubuntu's live media wifi problem is specific to Kubuntu or general to GNU/Linux I don't know because it
    depends on your hardware. You have to ask the guys at Kubuntu for support.

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