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  1. #1
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    Default when you are converting from Ubuntu

    Welcome to openSUSE 11.4, the newest release of the Linux Distribution with the Geeko.
    In the following Introduction to this system, we cover the differences in installation of the system, in enabling full mutimedia support and in how to install proprietary graphics drivers between Ubuntu and openSUSE.
    We will also cover some other differences, like installing software and doing systemsettings.

    General


    There is no KopenSUSE, or XopenSUSE.
    openSUSE also comes with different desktop environments, such as Gnome, KDE, XFCE and many more.
    But there is no special edition for that. OpenSUSE remains openSUSE, no matter which desktop environment is installed.

    Install


    openSUSE comes in different types of media. On software.opensuse.org: Download openSUSE 11.4 you can download several types of media. Just choose the desired version of openSUSE in the dropdown menu and afterwards the installation media.
    Which type of media is right for you?
    There are:
    DVD: the DVD contains a huge selection of software, for use on desktops and servers. It also contains both desktop environments: Gnome and KDE and allows you to choose between them (and others) during installation

    KDE Live: this is a Live CD, similar to the one, available for Ubuntu. It contains the most common software along with the KDE desktop environment

    Gnome-Live: this is a Live CD, similar to the one, available for Ubuntu. It contains the most common software along with the Gnome desktop environment

    As with Ubuntu, there is also an alternate CD available which allows installation via Network.

    For a plain description how to install openSUSE, please refer to Category:SDB:Installation 11.4 - openSUSE and the further links on this site.

    Dualbooting


    To set up a dualboot system with Ubuntu and/or Windows, you need to partition your harddrive(s) with a dedicated tool, such as Gparted, before you start to install openSUSE on your computer.
    The installer of openSUSE unfortunately is not able to resize and change partitions on your computers harddrive(s). For tips and hints on that, please refer to SDBartitioning - openSUSE
    When you have set up the desired partition layout with Gparted or a similar tool, you can start the installation as described in Category:SDB:Installation 11.4 - openSUSE
    Please note that during install, you need to check the final layout in the installer. This can be done by choosing „edit partition layout“ in the appropriate screen/step of the installer.


    This takes you to the expert mode of the partitioning step during installation.



    Uploaded with ImageShack.us

    Here you can review the partitioning layout and change mount points and options on formatting your partitions.
    The installer normally recognises Windows partitions and mounts them automatically. However, please read the proposed partitioning layout (depending on your individual setup) carefully and only proceed when you are sure that everything is set up to your satisfaction.
    After setting up the partition layout, you need to set up the user account for the system.
    Until you have finished this, the installer does not change anything to your harddrive(s).
    After the user information has been set up, the installer will present the final settings.

    Here you can still make changes to your setup. When you press the „install“ Button, the installer will tell you, that all information is complete and the system is ready to install.
    When you confirm the installation, the system will finally be installed.

    Differences to Ubuntu while using openSUSE


    Although both, openSUSE and Ubuntu, are Linux based operation systems, there are however some differences between both systems.

    Sudo?

    First of all, as a former Ubuntu user, you might be familiar with the fact, that in Ubuntu the „super User“ root is disabled by default. Instead of this, you always have to type a „sudo“ in front of the command you need to run with root permissions.
    In openSUSE, root is not disabled by default. That is why you need to switch over to user root, when you need to run a command with root privileges.
    This is being done by typing
    su
    followed by the password for the root account before you can type and run a command with root privileges.
    What is the password for the root account?
    When you have a standard install of openSUSE, the root password is the same as the password for the first user of the system. However, you could change this during installation of the system.
    In the step, which belongs to the user setup, you can check/uncheck a checkbox for the option
    „use this password for root“
    If you have not done this, the root password is the password for the first user of the system.
    What is the difference now?
    In Ubuntu, the terminal will run with root privileges for approximatly 15 minutes after the last command has been processed. After this time, the terminal will switch back to normal permissions.
    In openSUSE, whenever you have logged in as root, the terminal will run with root privileges until you change back to normal user permissions by typing

    Code:
    exit
    This is very important, because you need to observe if you are running commands with root permissions which do not need them and therefore can potentially harm the system.
    You can see whether a terminal runs in root mode or not. Just watch the username in the terminal.
    If there is a „#“ behind it, then the terminal runs in „root mode“.
    If you try to run a command, which requires root privileges, with your normal user permissions, the terminal will tell you that it needs root permissions for processing it. Then you can switch over to root in the same way, as described above.

    Package management

    openSUSE uses a different format for software packages than Ubuntu.
    In Ubuntu you may have noticed, that software packages are in .deb format. In openSUSE all packages are in .rpm format.
    This does no obvious difference to an average user, but it is worth knowing, that .deb packages do not work in a standard openSUSE system. There may be conversion tools, but for daily use, just stick to rpm´s and you will be fine.
    Similar to Ubuntu´s Synaptic package manager, openSUSE also uses a package management tool, which is called YaSt. YaSt means „Yet another Setup tool“, pointing out, that YaSt is not only used to manage software packages. It is more than that.
    YaSt is a powerful but friendly tool to do all the settings to your system, you will need.
    Be it installing software, setting up printers, network shares and settings... there are numerous tasks which are all to be done in YaSt, without digging and searching in system configuration files.
    Just discover it!
    During usage of YaSt you will notice that in every window, there are "Help" Buttons in the lower lefthand corner. The integrated Help system in YaSt provides useful information on all tasks which can be performed in the respective window.

    For information about the package management system in openSUSE and YaSt please refer to
    Package management - openSUSE and Portal:YaST - openSUSE

    When you are an experienced Ubuntu user, you might have noticed, that besides installing software via Synaptic, there is also a way to do this using the terminal.
    The common command to install a package in Ubuntu is

    Code:
    sudo apt-get install [package name]
    however, in openSUSE there is no apt-get. But of course there is also a command line tool for installing and removing packages, as well as updating and upgrading the system and adding and removing software repositories.

    This tool is called zypper.

    The typical command of installing a software package (after switching to root, by typing su and your password) would be:

    Code:
    zypper install [package name]
    For more information on zypper and it´s whole lot of features, please refer to Portalypper - openSUSE

    Multimedia

    In openSUSE you can of course enjoy all the multimedia features as you could in Ubuntu.
    Like in Ubuntu, there can not all packages, like codecs and so on, be delivered with the standard system because of concerns related to licenses.
    In Ubuntu, you needed to add an additional package source to do so. In openSUSE this is the same.
    But of course this package source is not called „Medibuntu“ as it was in Ubuntu, but „Packman“ instead.
    How do you add this package source? It is easier than in Ubuntu!
    Just open YaSt. Choose „software repositories“. YaSt will now load all the already enabled repositories on your system and present them as following:



    Uploaded with ImageShack.us

    To add a repository, click on the button add, in the lower left corner of the screen.
    YaSt will now present some options, how to add a repository.
    Just choose the option „community repositories“ and you be lead to a table of pre selected repositories. Choose „Packman“ and activate it by checking the checkbox in front of it. Then click „proceed“ and YaSt will do the rest. It will also ask you if you want to import the GPG key of the repository and it is recommended to do so.
    When everything is finished successfully, YaSt will close the „add Software repositories“ window automatically.
    When you now install some packages, or update the system, using „Online Update“ in YaSt, it will automatically install all necessary codecs, the flashplugin installer and some Microsoft True Type fonts. You just need to confirm the license for Flashplugin and the Microsoft Fonts.

    Proprietary Graphics drivers

    In Ubuntu you had a handy tool to install a proprietary graphics driver, called jockey. This tool popped up some time after installing the system and asked you whether you want to install a proprietary graphics driver or not.
    However, in openSUSE you will not have this tool. But, no worries, the installation of these drivers is also very easy.
    At first, you also need to enable an additional repository. So you do the same steps as you did, while enabling the packman repository in YaSt.
    You also choose „community repository“ as the right type of it.
    After doing that, you search for a repository, depending of the manufacturer of your graphics card.
    If you have a Nvidia card, there will be most likely a nvidia repository in the list. If you have an ATI device, you will find an ATI repository. YaSt automatically detects the type of your card, and offers the appropriate option.
    You then enable this repository and when you update the system or install packages after doing so, the proprietary driver will be installed automatically. You just need to do a system restart, after the installation has finished.

    Have a lot of fun!
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  2. #2
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    Default Re: when you are converting from Ubuntu

    Good work steffen.

    I know there will be a lot of input on this. I'll kick off with

    This is being done by typing
    su
    followed by the password for the root account before you can type and run a command with root privileges.
    This is preferable

    Code:
    su -
    because it provides root's environment, (including the necessary paths to various system commands).

    A convoluted on this discussed here. Of course 'sudo' can also be used provided one has the sudo package installed.

  3. #3
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    Default Re: when you are converting from Ubuntu

    Early on you say: 'KDE Live: this is a Live CD, similar to the one, available for Ubuntu.'
    Should that be Kubuntu to be technically correct?

    If typically ubuntu users come here and are inexperienced, so much so that they need a guide. My guess is they will have the default ub* install with swap +1 partition for root/home combined. I think I would have put something about that.

    YaST is as you quote, but it is not a comparative to synaptic.

    The Install partitioner can manage, create, delete, resize partitions. (Though I use Parted Magic I must admit)

    Adding Packman alone is not the answer to multimedia. A simple solution for a Ub* user would be to link them to Multimedia in One Click

    Something about Grub? Perhaps the user is not switching entirely and is planning to have Ub* + SUSE side by side.

    *Once we have some feedback here. I'll edit the the original with your permission.
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    Default Re: when you are converting from Ubuntu

    About the environments, if they are using Ubuntu, then GNOME LiveCD is the appropriate substitute. If Kubuntu, then KDE LiveCD. I guess those people who use Kubuntu would know, but it's possible some may persist in calling it Ubuntu.

    That also reminds me that it should be explained the openSUSE DVD which has both desktop environments has no counterpart in *buntu. In general *buntu DVDs are not publicised. Also that it is possible for both environments to be installed simultaneously on openSUSE.

    There is no equivalent of *buntu's wubi which allows running on a disk contained inside a Windows file.

    *buntu and Debian call the x86_64 architecture amd64. Same thing. Most *buntu users are encouraged to start with the 32-bit version. Questions about whether 32 or 64 on openSUSE should probably be directed to another Wiki page explaining the pros and the few cons.

  5. #5
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    Default Re: when you are converting from Ubuntu

    @deano_ferrari: first of all, I have (oviously) forgotten to put some [code] tags around "su".... Regarding

    Code:
     su -
    to be honest, I didn´t know that. I am also not really sure whether a newbie from Ubuntu needs it. I know, one never knows what people do with their computers, but what´s the worst case? Is it just some "command not found" messages? Or can they mess up the system by typing just
    Code:
     su
    ? The problem hereby is: when you put a big story about "su -" it sort of turns people off and they will not read it to the end anyway. I know that from my own experience so, people do not read it anyway, and then do the mistakes also anyway... So, if it does no real harm to the systems of the users, I would put a link to the article about "su -" and put some sentences about it in the text and thats it. But, this is just my opinion.

    @caf4926: KDE Live... yeah it should be Kubuntu. It is just a typo. Sorry for that. Regarding the partitioning, Grub and the installer I have to go through the text again anyway. Because I am also not really satisfied with it. I will send you an update in the next days. Regarding Multimedia I need to do a bit of more research then, because I, as I converted, just switched on Packman and had everything I needed But as I said, one never knows what other users do with their computers and so maybe Packman is not enough.

    Regarding YaST I just wanted to point out that there is also something for installing software, like they are used to in Synaptic. I will then enhance the software install section a bit. Requires some research time for me, as I am also still learning



    as a general "setting" of the text I would like to leave the technical things behind the scenes out of the text as much as possible. Unless it is really necessary because of security reasons and so on. Because this is, what makes Ubuntu and their wiki too. They just have a plain explanation, some small details and hints and tips how to use stuff. And so, Ubuntu users, which do not have so much experience are not really used to all these technical details and I think that "too much technology" scares them off then. Again: my opinion, to be discussed
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    Default Re: when you are converting from Ubuntu

    Don't forget about yast with the ncurses interface. I don't think Ubuntu has anything like that. It can be exceptional helpful for people who, for some reason, need to do things at a cli, yet are not so well versed at using the cli. Installing graphics drivers, fixing an interrupted update come to the mind. A sentence, or so, in the Package management section would fit quite well with giving "hints and tips how to use stuff".

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    Default Re: when you are converting from Ubuntu

    ? The problem hereby is: when you put a big story about "su -" it sort of turns people off and they will not read it to the end anyway. I know that from my own experience so, people do not read it anyway, and then do the mistakes also anyway... So, if it does no real harm to the systems of the users, I would put a link to the article about "su -" and put some sentences about it in the text and thats it. But, this is just my opinion.
    I probably would just state 'su -' without justification or further explanation. Then the 'new user' just learns good practice, and no 'big story is then necessary'.

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    Default Re: when you are converting from Ubuntu

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    Default Re: when you are converting from Ubuntu

    On 2011-05-12 07:36, steffen13 wrote:
    > to be honest, I didn´t know that. I am also not really sure whether a newbie from Ubuntu needs it. I know, one never knows what people do with their computers, but what´s the worst case? Is it just some "command not found" messages? Or can they mess up the system by typing just


    Some commands do not work. Then they ask here why they do not work.

    --
    Cheers / Saludos,

    Carlos E. R.
    (from 11.2 x86_64 "Emerald" at Telcontar)

  10. #10
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    Default Re: when you are converting from Ubuntu

    Hi, here is an update... first of all, I am a bit un-sure, what to write about YaST and all the features in software management which go beyond Synaptic in Ubuntu. There I need some help, I guess, as I up to now used it the same way as Synaptic in Ubuntu (I am sure, a lot of Ubuntu converts will do so in the first time). And also regarding all the other YaST features... what is to be mentioned, what is not necessary for the first steps of an Ubuntu convert?

    However, I fixed the installer section, the su - part and also tried to research some bootloader stuff. Regarding bootloader, I am really not sure if this right, what I wrote.

    any feedback will be welcome!

    OpenSUSE 11.4


    Welcome to openSUSE 11.4, the newest release of the Linux Distribution with the Geeko.
    In the following Introduction to this system, we cover the differences in installation of the system, in enabling full mutimedia support and in how to install proprietary graphics drivers between Ubuntu and openSUSE.
    We will also cover some other differences, like installing software and doing systemsettings.

    General
    There is no KopenSUSE, or XopenSUSE.
    Like all the different Flavors of Ubuntu, openSUSE also comes with different desktop environments, such as Gnome, KDE, XFCE and many more.
    But there is no special edition and naming for that. OpenSUSE remains openSUSE, no matter which desktop environment is installed.

    Install


    openSUSE comes in different types of media. On software.opensuse.org: Download openSUSE 11.4 you can download several types of media. Just choose the desired version of openSUSE in the dropdown menu and afterwards the installation media.
    Which type of media is right for you?
    There are:
    DVD: the DVD contains a huge selection of software, for use on desktops and servers. It also contains both desktop environments: Gnome and KDE and allows you to choose between them (and others) during installation
    KDE Live: this is a Live CD, similar to the one, available for Kubuntu. It contains the most common software along with the KDE desktop environment
    Gnome-Live: this is a Live CD, similar to the one, available for Ubuntu. It contains the most common software along with the Gnome desktop environment
    as with Ubuntu, there is also an alternate CD available which allows installation via Network
    Additionally, as with Ubuntu, you can choose between 32-Bit and 64-Bit versions. However, with Ubuntu, you may have heard the name „amd64“ when it came to 64-Bit versions. In openSUSE this is named „X86_64“. The content, a Linux based operating system for 64-Bit capable computers is the same.
    For a plain description how to install openSUSE, please refer to Category:SDB:Installation 11.4 - openSUSE and the further links on this site.

    Dualbooting

    To set up a dualboot system with Ubuntu and/or Windows, you can use the openSUSE Installer to manage, resize and format partitions on your computers harddrive(s).
    For tips and hints on that, please refer to SDBartitioning - openSUSE before installing openSUSE.
    Start the installation as described in Category:SDB:Installation 11.4 - openSUSE
    To manage, resize and/or format partitions on your harddrive(s), please choose in the installation step „disk“ the appropriate option „create partition setup“, „import partition setup“ or „edit partition setup“ in the openSUSE installer.

    ---> here: pic of the installer, partitioning step

    This takes you to the expert mode of the partitioning step during installation.

    ---> here: pic of the partitioning expert mode of the installer


    Here you can review the partitioning layout, resize, delete, and move partitions on your harddrive(s) as well as change mount points and options on formatting your partitions.
    The installer normally recognises Windows partitions and mounts them automatically. However, please read the proposed partitioning layout (depending on your individual setup) carefully and only proceed when you are sure that everything is set up to your satisfaction.
    Please keep in your mind, that you might lose data when you modify the partitioning of your harddrive(s). This is why it is highly recommended, to make backups of your data, before installing openSUSE.
    After setting up your partitions and the following step, creating a user for the system, the installer presents all settings you made in a final description.
    Please read this description carefully. You can still make changes to your setup, by pressing the button „change“. This takes you back to a menu where you can change all settings again.

    ----> here: pics of the installation summary


    Until you have finished this, the installer does not change anything to your harddrive(s).

    When you press the „install“ Button, the installer will tell you, that all information is complete and the system is ready to install

    ----> here: pic of the "confirm installation" window of the installer


    When you confirm the installation, the system will finally be installed.
    Default partition layout
    By default, openSUSE creates a partion layout with a separate /home partition on your system. So the final setup will consist of swap, root (/) and /home partitions.
    Ubuntu, by default creates a layout, in which the /home directory (the directory in which all user data, like documents, photos etc. is stored) is part of the root (/) partition. In Ubuntu then, the final setup consists of swap and root (/), which includes the /home directory. When you have installed Ubuntu in it´s default settings, this is most likely the case.
    The default openSUSE way has the advantage, that if you break the system and have to re-install it, you will most likely not lose your data in /home. The Installer also recognises, that you install openSUSE over an existing openSUSE system and then does not format /home by default - unless you set it to do so in the „disk“ part of the installation.
    The same is possible during a system upgrade. You always can upgrade an openSUSE system to a newer version, using the install DVD. Here also the installer recognises the old openSUSE system and the separate /home partition and will not format it by default.
    When you set up a dualbooting system with Ubuntu and openSUSE, you need to observe that you do not format the root partition of Ubuntu. Otherwise you will lose data in your Ubuntu - /home and also break the Ubuntu system.
    OpenSUSE will use the swap partition, which was created by Ubuntu for swapping during system operations. So there most likely it is not necessary to create a new swap partition.
    Bootloader
    When you have a Dualboot system, all systems on your machine need to be managed by a bootloader. Therefore, all Linux based systems have the program GRUB (Grand unified bootloader) delivered and installed by default. There are also other bootloaders out there, but GRUB is the most common. GRUB helps in many ways, even on systems which are running Linux only. For a dualbooting system, GRUB is important, because with it, you can choose which operating system should be booted.
    When you set up a dualbooting system, at the end of installation, GRUB detects other systems and sets them up, so that you can choose from them during start-up.
    This is also the case when you install openSUSE additionally to an Ubuntu, or an Ubuntu/Windows system.
    OpenSUSE uses GRUB, whereas Ubuntu uses GRUB2. So for the installation of openSUSE to an existing Ubuntu, there are two options.
    1. using openSUSE´s GRUB to boot all the systems on your computer
    2. using Ubuntu´s GRUB2 to boot all the systems on your computer

    for the 1st option, you need to remember, that GRUB of openSUSE will not detect the existing Ubuntu system automatically. You need to update the bootloader in YaST after finishing the installation. To prepare for this, you need to know on which partition and with which kernel variants Ubuntu is installed.
    Please search and investigate these information before you start the installation of openSUSE. The best way would be, that you store a copy of Ubuntu´s menu.lst (the GRUB2 configuration file) on a separate media.
    When you want to go the 2nd way, you need to remember, that you do not install a bootloader during install of openSUSE, because otherwise, the openSUSE Installer would overwrite the GRUB2 of Ubuntu. You need to set this up during installation of openSUSE.
    With this, after installation of openSUSE, you still can not boot openSUSE. You need to boot up Ubuntu, open a terminal and type
    sudo update-grub
    With this, GRUB2 of Ubuntu reads all entries on the harddrive(s) and adds openSUSE
    to it´s menu.
    From now on you can choose between the systems during boot-up.
    However, whenever there is a kernel update in openSUSE, you need to run this command again in Ubuntu. The same is valid when you use the first option and there is a Kernel update in Ubuntu. You then need to update the bootloader in YaST.

    Differences to Ubuntu


    Although both, openSUSE and Ubuntu, are Linux based operation systems, there are however some differences between both systems.

    Sudo?

    First of all, as a former Ubuntu user, you might be familiar with the fact, that in Ubuntu the „super User“ root is disabled by default. Instead of this, you always have to type a „sudo“ in front of the command you need to run with root permissions.
    In openSUSE, root is not disabled by default. That is why you need to switch over to user root, when you need to run a command with root privileges.
    This is being done by typing

    Code:
    su -
    followed by the password for the root account before you can type and run a command with root privileges.
    What is the password for the root account?
    When you have a standard install of openSUSE, the root password is the same as the password for the first user of the system. However, you could change this during installation of the system.
    In the step, which belongs to the user setup, you can check/uncheck a checkbox for the option
    „use this password for root“
    If you have not done this, the root password is the password for the first user of the system.
    What is the difference now?
    In Ubuntu, the terminal will run with root privileges for approximatly 15 minutes after the last command has been processed. After this time, the terminal will switch back to normal permissions.
    In openSUSE, whenever you have logged in as root, the terminal will run with root privileges until you change back to normal user permissions by typing

    Code:
    exit
    This is very important, because you need to observe if you are running commands with root permissions which do not need them and therefore can potentially harm the system.
    You can see whether a terminal runs in root mode or not. Just watch the name of the computer in the terminal.
    If there is a „#“ behind it, then the terminal runs in „root mode“. When it runs with normal user privileges, it shows

    Code:
    user@computer:~>
    If you try to run a command, which requires root privileges, with your normal user permissions, the terminal will tell you that it needs root permissions for processing it.
    Then you can switch over to root in the same way, as described above.

    Package management

    openSUSE uses a different format for software packages. In Ubuntu you may have noticed, that software packages are in .deb format. In openSUSE all packages are in .rpm format.
    This does no obviuous difference to an average user, but it is worth knowing, that .deb packages do not work in a standard openSUSE system. There may be conversion tools, but for daily use, just stick to rpm´s and you will be fine.
    Similar to Ubuntu´s Synaptic package manager, openSUSE also uses a package management tool, which is part of YaST.
    YaST means „Yet another Setup tool“, pointing out, that YaST is not only used to manage software packages. It is much more than that.
    YaST is a powerful but friendly tool to do all the settings to your system, you will need.
    Be it installing software, setting up printers, network shares and settings... there are numerous tasks which are all to be done in YaST, without digging and searching in system configuration files.
    Just discover it!

    For information about the package management system in openSUSE and YaST please refer to
    Package management - openSUSE and Portal:YaST - openSUSE

    When you are an experienced Ubuntu user, you might have noticed, that besides installing software via Synaptic, there is also a way to do this using the terminal.
    The common command to install a package in Ubuntu is

    Code:
    sudo apt-get install [package name]
    however, in openSUSE there is no apt-get. But of course there is also a command line tool for installing and removing packages, as well as updating and upgrading the system and adding and removing software repositories.
    This tool is called zypper.
    The typical command of installing a software package is (after switching to root, by typing su - and your password):

    Code:
    zypper install [package name]
    For more information on zypper and it´s whole lot of features, please refer to Portalypper - openSUSE

    Multimedia

    In openSUSE you can of course enjoy all the multimedia features as you could in Ubuntu.
    Like in Ubuntu, there can not all packages, like codecs and so on, be delivered with the standard system because of concerns related to licenses.
    In Ubuntu, you needed to add an additional package source to do so. In openSUSE this is the same.
    But of course this package source is not called „Medibuntu“, but „Packman“ instead.
    How do you add this package source? It is easier than in Ubuntu!
    Just open YaST. Choose „software repositories“. YaST will now load all the already enabled repositories on your system and present them as following:

    ----> here: pic of software repositories window in YaST
    Desk: HP Pavilion, Nvidia GeForce GTX460, Atheros Wlan, openSUSE 12.1 KDE 4.7.2, Win7
    Lap: Sony Vaio VPCEB3J1E, Intel GMA 3500, Intel Wlan, openSUSE 12.1 KDE 4.7.2
    Netty: HP Mini 3530, Xubuntu 11.10

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