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oldcpu's meandering thoughts on Computers, GNU/Linux and openSUSE

OpenSUSE LEAP-15.3 installation on Lenovo X1 Carbon Gen-9 – my experience

Rating: 2 votes, 4.50 average.
I recently purchased a Lenovo X1 Carbon 9th generation, with an Intel Core-i7-1165G7, 16GB RAM, 1 TB SSD and a 1920x1200 non-touch display, where I successfully installed openSUSE LEAP-15.3 on this machine.

My plan is that this will be a long blog entry, with multiple posts over a period of time as I gradually update software associated with this laptop. If I have issues I will post for 'help' elsewhere in this forum.

INTRODUCTION:

This laptop replaces an ancient Toshiba Z930 (w/core-i7-3667U) which is significantly slower – which means any improvement looks good to me, and I am not the most demanding person for high performance.

Note that I am a basic user, with video conferencing, and video editing / rendering being my most demanding potential use, although typically I do some video editing/rendering on a separate desktop PC. Only when traveling ‘on the road’ do I render with the ultrabook. So it is highly possible aspects that I am FULLY satisfied with on this laptop, won’t please others who are more demanding users.

I primarily purchased the X1 carbon Gen-9 for (1) light weight, (2) being very slim, and (3) having many external interfaces. Likely I will keep this for 5 to 8 years, which is another reason I went for the X1 Carbon Gen-9 as opposed to an older cheaper device.

In deciding on this device, I was encouraged by the fact that Lenovo do sell this laptop with either Fedora or Ubuntu pre-installed, instead of Windows-10, if one wishes to purchase a GNU/Linux version. In the case of this laptop, Lenovo do not sell it with openSUSE installed, although in the past Lenovo have sold other computers with SLED and SLES reference:

https://support.lenovo.com/us/en/solutions/pd031426

I purchased a version of this Lenovo X1 Carbon Gen-9 with Windows-10 pre-installed. Part of the bargain I struck with my wife (in her agreeing to my purchase such a new Lenovo) was that if I could not get openSUSE to work with this laptop, then she would get the laptop, and she is an MS-Windows user.

While I have installed variants of SuSE and openSUSE many times, this is my 1st openSUSE LEAP-15.3 install. While I have been using openSUSE (and SuSE-Pro prior) since 2003, until now I had yet until now to try LEAP-15.3.

INSTALLATION PREPARATION :

Pre-install LiveUSB checks

Prior to installing LEAP-15.3, I tested booting the laptop to different live-GNU/Linux USB variants (press F12 on boot to see the possibility to boot to a USB device):

* Knoppix-9.1 – liveUSB booted fine [Microknoppix Kernel: 5.10.10-64 x86_64 bits]. wifi worked. Sound did not work (Alsa info: http://alsa-project.org/db/?f=6803b75cc84178e5e5e2af1f55fe287f1029d9e4) . I did not know how to install sof-firmware under Knoppix so I could not confirm that would work. A full shutdown with “shutdown -h now” worked. Bluetooth was not identified in the app ‘inxi’. [ OpenGL: renderer: Mesa Intel Xe Graphics (TGL GT2) v: 4.6 Mesa 20.3.4 ]

* openSUSE-LEAP-15.3 – live USB booted fine. [Kernel: 5.3.18-59.19-default x86_64 bits]. Wifi worked. Sound only worked after installing sof-firmware and restarting sound with YaST. ( ALSA information before sof-firmware installed: http://alsa-project.org/db/?f=d004e9...f5b0bca527e709 and ALSA info after sof-firmware installed (audio now works): http://alsa-project.org/db/?f=e57ada...be20bf5c5fa99b ) . A full shutdown failed (only partly worked). Bluetooth was not identified in the app ‘inxi’. [ OpenGL: renderer: Mesa Intel Xe Graphics (TGL GT2) v: 4.6 Mesa 20.2.4 ]

* openSUSE-Tumbleweed (20210924 version)- liveUSB booted fine. [Kernel: 5.14.6-1-default x86_64 bits:]. Sound only worked after installing sof-firmware and restarting sound with YaST ( ALSA information before installing sof-firmware: http://alsa-project.org/db/?f=eae33c...3f3700aac0cff8 ) . Identified bluetooth but advised (in the app ‘inxi’) that “This feature requires one of these tools: hciconfig/bt-adapter”. A full shutdown with “shutdown -h now” worked. [ OpenGL: renderer: Mesa Intel Xe Graphics (TGL GT2) v: 4.6 Mesa 21.2.2 ]

Wifi worked with those live-USBs ( using the iwlwifi driver). Audio worked only after sof-firmare installed (for openSUSE liveUSBs).

Here is the file structure initially (as seen from a GNU/Linux boot USB with ‘parted -l’ ) BEFORE any SSD carving/partition creating (ie with no GNU/Liinux installed)
Code:
 root@Microknoppix:/home/knoppix# parted -l
  
 Model: SAMSUNG MZVL21T0HCLR-00BL7 (nvme)
  Disk /dev/nvme0n1: 1024GB

 Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
 Partition Table: gpt
 Disk Flags:  
  
 Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name                          Flags
  1      1049kB  274MB   273MB   fat32        EFI system partition          boot, hidden, esp
  2      274MB   290MB   16.8MB               Microsoft reserved partition  msftres
  3      290MB   1023GB  1023GB               Basic data partition          msftdata
  4      1023GB  1024GB  1049MB  ntfs         Basic data partition          hidden, diag
BIOS versions

I went to both the Lenovo support site, and the GNU/Linux ‘fwupd.org’ app site (which provides Lenovo firmware for installation under GNU/Linux) to see what versions of the BIOS were available:

On the ‘fwupd.org’ site v.1.47 was the latest version: https://fwupd.org/lvfs/search?value=X1+Carbon

Here is the link to v.1.47: https://fwupd.org/lvfs/devices/com.l...ETXXW.firmware

I also went to the Lenovo support site, and I noted a v.1.47 BIOS update there also:
https://pcsupport.lenovo.com/th/en/p...1-yoga-6th-gen

I checked my laptop, and it only had an older version 1.42 of UEFI BIOS (2021/06/15) where I also noted the latest was version 1.47 (issued 2021/09/15). Checking the change logs, I saw updates relevant to GNU/Linux and I knew I had a BIOS update to perform. One update in the UEFI BIOS update change logs in particular caught my eye (for the v.1.47 update): Fixed an issue where thermal throttling may happens on Linux OS”.

I had not used fwupd app before. Given this was a new install of openSUSE LEAP-15.3, where I had not read of even 1 person before me installing openSUSE on this 9th gen Lenovo X1 carbon, I decided to play safe and do the firmware update from Windows-10.

However Lenovo recommended (if updating the BIOS from MS-Windows) to only do so with the latest Windows updates in place, so that meant I had to update MS-Windows-10 first, which I did (and that took a while).

Carving up the SSD for GNU/Linux

After the MS-Windows update, and after updating the BIOS to v.1.47, I re-booted to Windows-10 and I immediately disabled hibernation, disabled page file, disable system protection, defragged the SSD (where defragging was likely not needed), and reduced the MS-Windows partition to about 80 GB (using Windows-10 disk management). I could have reduced it further to 65 GB had I wished. This left most of the remainder of the SSD for openSUSE (aside from some MS-Windows recovery partitions).

I then booted to the Knoppix-9.1 liveUSB and used ‘gparted’ to carve up the newly created unallocated SSD space to / (~25 GB) and /home (~890 GB). I also created a ~16 GB swap (possibly not needed).
Code:
  Model: NVMe Device (nvme)
 Disk /dev/nvme0n1: 1024GB
 Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
 Partition Table: gpt
 Disk Flags:  
 
 
 Number  Start   End     Size    File system     Name                          Flags
  1      1049kB  274MB   273MB   fat32           EFI system partition          boot, hidden, esp
  2      274MB   290MB   16.8MB                  Microsoft reserved partition  msftres
  3      290MB   84.2GB  83.9GB                  Basic data partition          msftdata
  4      84.2GB  111GB   26.9GB  ext4            root
  6      111GB   129GB   17.6GB  linux-swap(v1)  swap                          swap
  7      129GB   1023GB  894GB   ext4            home
  5      1023GB  1024GB  1049MB  ntfs            Basic data partition          hidden, diag
Once this was created I then proceeded to successfully install openSUSE LEAP-15.3 (with secure boot disabled).

.... to be continued ....

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  1. oldcpu's Avatar
    Some BIOS Settings:

    Note that prior to installing, I went into the BIOS (press F1 on boot) ensured I was happy with the settings. Most likely most of this is not needed:
    * Disabled “USB Key provisioning” (under Config)
    * Disabled “UEFI – IPV4/IPV6 stack” (under Config)
    * Disabled “Lenovo Cloud Service” (under Config)
    * Disabled “Network Boot” (under startup)
    * Set Boot Mode (under startup) to Diagnostics
    * Left “Secure boot” (under Security) as “Enabled”
    * Left “Device guard’ (under Security) as ‘OFF’ (default setting)
    * Left Enabled “Absolute Persistence Module” (under Security – it was ‘Enabled’ by default)

    Given the liveUSBs were able to boot with Secure Boot enabled, I was reasonably confidence I could install LEAP-15.3 with ‘Secure Boot’ enabled.


    Installing LEAP-15.3
    As part of the LEAP-15.3 install, I went into the advanced/custom part of the openSUSE LEAP-15.3 install, to make certain I had the swap, / and /home exactly where I wanted them. This also meant I had to point openSUSE to the existing MS-windows /efi for the openSUSE /boot/efi (being certain NOT to reformat that directory).

    Audio

    sof-firmware: I noticed sof-firmware automatically installed, and it is version 1.6.1-2.9. For audio the kernel module is: snd_soc_skl_hda_dsp

    The openSUSE-LEAP-15.3 official repository sof-firmware-1.6.1-2.9 was made available on github for packagers on 4-December-2020. There is a v.1.8 available in the LEAP-15.3 experimental repository was made available on the github site ( https://github.com/thesofproject/sof/releases ) for packagers on 23-June-2021. I also noted from the github site that it includes fixes for TigerLake CPUs Iattempted to update to v.1.8 but that failed – as the experimental repos failed to connect to some SuSE Enterprise repos.

    The audio worked ok for both speaker and headphones.

    There is an issue that I have, where the mic works for some applications (such as ‘arecord’) but does not work for some other applications (such as ‘guvcview’). There is already a bug report on the mic not recording (raised on Tumbleweed) and I suspect this could be the same issue.

    alsa-info.sh: For the curious, here is the ‘alsa-info.sh output on the LEAP-15.3 install:
    * http://alsa-project.org/db/?f=92e8fb...1f07be97ca2af5


    Thermal/Power Management

    TLP (Optimize Linux Laptop Battery Life): TLP-1.3.1 is installed by default for openSUSE LEAP-15.3. I note TLP version 1.3.1 was made available for packagers on 7-Feb-2020 on github). There is no newer version packaged for LEAP-15.3 in experimental/community repositories (although v.1.40 is available on github: https://github.com/linrunner/TLP/releases (packaged 24-Sep-2021)). I read conflicting accounts on a Lenovo Linux forum, where one user stated in reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/thinkpad/co...x1_carbon_9th/ - Lenovo recommend to not use TLP (where nominally TLP is intended to better manage battery life in a laptop). That article purports that TLP interferes with the Lenovo X1 Carbon’s firmware power settings. However I also read on reddit ( https://www.reddit.com/r/thinkpad/co...n_9_fans_linux ) another article that suggested to install TLP. Given TLP already installed - I considered this a moot point for the moment.

    thermald: I note ‘thermald’ v.1.6 comes with LEAP-15.3 (but it is not installed by default). I noted on github this version was released for packagers on 4-March-2017, which is before this Lenovo’s hardware was on the market. Github has v.2.4.6 (created on 8-June-2021) as the most current version but I speculate the newer 2.4.6 thermald may need the newer 5.14 kernel to take advantage of its features.

    The benefit of installing a newer kernel in this case, is supported by (for example) a Phoronix article: ( https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?pa...1-Gen9-2nd-Fan ) which notes the Linux-5.13 kernel ( https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux...7828f18db01151 ) can enable a ThinkPad ACPI driver to control the second fan on the ThinkPad X1 Carbon.

    This made me think that I probably should update the kernel to 5.14 or newer sometime in the future – in order to obtain best thermal performance.

    .... to be continued ....
  2. oldcpu's Avatar
    Graphics:
    Graphics work ok (Iris Xe Graphics, resolution: 1920x1200). Driver is i915.

    See below in this thread for an ‘inxi’ output (giving more information on graphic hardware and software).

    intel-media-driver: The package intel-media-driver 20.3.0-1.41 was automatically selected and installed from the LEAP-15.3 official repository.

    I previously read:
    The Intel Media Driver for VAAPI is a new VA-API (Video Acceleration API) user mode driver supporting hardware accelerated decoding, encoding, and video post processing for GEN based graphics hardware.

    I note this laptop uses the i915 graphic driver, and I found this internet explanation interesting, where someone gives their understanding of the difference between the i915 and the intel-media-driver:
    i915 is name of kernel module that talks to GPU hardware. It is used for many different things - controlling output signals to monitor, submitting 3d/rendering commands, memory management, etc.
    intel-media-driver is package of libraries that application use for hardware accelerated video processing, encoding & decoding. ie such as "mp4 playback" or "youtube videos". To do its work it talks to i915 module in kernel to access hardware.

    I noted on github the openSUSE LEAP-15.3 packaged intel-media-driver v.20.3.0 version was made available for GNU/Linux packagers on 30-Sep-2020. The latest ‘release’ version on github is a newer official version 21.2.3 9 (packaged 30-June-2021). Further, on github there are newer builds such as version 21.3.4 (made available on github 6-Sep-2021). I also noted v.21.3.4 is available in the LEAP-15.3 experimental and community repositories. I read on the github site, that version 21.2.3 needed at least intel-gmmlib-21.2.1 and libva-2.12.0. Versions that new for gmmlib and libva can be obtained for LEAP-15.3 on experimental & community repositories.

    I decided to not immediately go for the latest intel-media-driver, as I suspect it needs a kernel v.5.8 or newer for Tiger Lake processors, while LEAP-15.3 comes with the 5.3.18 kernel.

    This also makes me think that I probably should update the kernel to 5.14 or newer sometime in the future – in order to obtain best thermal performance. If I update to the 5.14 or newer kernel, I will add to this blog entry.

    As a further note, while there was no screen flickering that I could see, I noted some users experienced this. One of the fixes was to addi915.enable_psr=0 “ to the boot parameters (as that is purportedly to reduce ‘ i915.enable_psr=0’). I read the reason some people in other distros use PSR=0 is the following:
    Panel Self Refresh (PSR), a power saving feature used by Intel iGPUs is known to cause flickering in some instances FS#49628 FS#49371 FS#50605. A temporary solution is to disable this feature using the kernel parameter i915.enable_psr=0.

    I may add that boot code in the future if I have an issue.

    Some basic testing

    I note after installing openSUSE LEAP-15.3:

    * wifi works. WiFi device is an Intel Wi-Fi 6 AX201. The driver: iwlwifi

    * webcam works (uvcvideo compatible)
    The webcam is a: 04f2:b6ea Chicony Electronics Co., Ltd Integrated Camera. The webcam is not in the list in “ https://www.ideasonboard.org/uvc/ “ so I may send information to the mailing list on sourceforge letting them know the detail, where the Mailing list is here: https://sourceforge.net/projects/lin...inux-uvc-devel

    Although, having typed that, I note this webcam is in more Lenovo hardware, and given its not in that uvc list, but works with uvc, makes me suspect that list may not be maintained any more.

    * audio: audio mostly works (speakers, mike, headphones). I did encounter an issue with the mic with an app where I believe that to be an openSUSE (or upstream pipewire) issue.

    While I successfully tested the mic with the command line app ‘arecord’ , I also noted the mic does not work with the application ‘guvcview’. I suspect this is the same issue reported in this Tumbleweed bug report: https://bugzilla.opensuse.org/show_bug.cgi?id=1189228 , and also raised in this openSUSE thread: https://forums.opensuse.org/showthre...recorded-video

    * trackpad/red pointing stick: trackpad and red ‘pointing stick’ in middle of keyboard works.
    - the red ‘pointing stick’ is a "TPPS/2 Elan TrackPoint".
    - the trackpad is a “"ELAN0672:00 04F3:3187 Touchpad”

    * Function keys. Most of the function keys work. I only tested some of the function keys:
    * F1 – mutes sound (toggle) – this works
    * F2 – decreases volume – this works
    * F3 – increases volume – this works
    * F4 – mutes the mic (toggle) – this works
    * F5 – decreases display brightness – this works
    * F6 – increases display brightness – this works
    * F7 – for connecting to external monitor – I did not test
    * F8 – airplane mode (toggle) – I did not test
    * F9 – open/collapse a ‘notification center’ (I think for Windows-10) - I did not test.
    * F10 – answer incoming calls (for apps such as Skype in Windows-10) – I did not test
    * F11 – decline/hangup calls (for apps such as Skype in Windows-10) – I did not test
    * F12 – key for customization in Windows-10 using a ‘vantage app’ – I did not test.


    Hardware probe: An early ‘hw-probe’ after an openSUSE install (with the original 5.3.18 kernel) yielded this: https://linux-hardware.org/?probe=f3c6229102

    Webcam: The webcam works under uvcvideo, although as I noted that the audio recording with that app fails.

    Battery: According to “lshw” the battery is a Celxpert, 57000 mWh. Product: 5B10W13974. I have not tested the battery life, but I have read it is supposed to be very long between charges.

    .... to be continued ....
  3. oldcpu's Avatar
    Features Not Yet Tested

    I have not tested the following (due to my having no requirement yet):

    * bluetooth
    I did not yet test this but I noted the bluetooth detected in dmesg (where “dmesg | grep -i blue” gave a bunch of information).

    Thunderbird
    * thunderbold functionality (other than for power/charging and data transfer with an external HD). My wife has an external SSD with a USB-C connector, and I may plug that into a Thunderbird port and try a test.

    * finger print reading. I did not install fprintd which I understand is likely needed for this. LEAP-15.3 has an officially packaged fprintd-0.80 (made available on github for packagers on 13-Sep-2017), but one can get fprintd-1.90.9 (made available on github for packagers on 13-January-2021) from a LEAP-15.3 experimental repository. In fact version 1.94 is available on github (as of 20-August-2021) but there are no rpms yet packaged for openSUSE LEAP-15.3. As noted, I did not install this.

    * HDMI – I have not tested this.

    * BIOS updates from GNU/Linux: To update the BIOS in GNU/Linux one can use fwupd-1.2.14 (openSUSE LEAP-15.3 packaged version). I did not use this app, but rather I updated the BIOS in MS-Windows. Currently from the LEAP-15.3 experimental repositories, one can install v.1.5.8 (made available for packagers on github on 24-March-2021). I notice the latest version on github is v.1.6.4 (made available for packagers on 24-Sep-2021), however that has not been packaged yet for openSUSE.

    I have not yet installed this fwupd application.

    Installation/hardware/software summary:

    Here is an output of “inxi -F” :
    Code:
     localhost:/home/oldcpu # inxi -F
     System:    Host: localhost Kernel: 5.3.18-59.24-default x86_64 bits: 64 Desktop: KDE Plasma 5.18.6 Distro: openSUSE Leap 15.3  
     Machine:   Type: Laptop System: LENOVO product: 20XW00A7TH v: ThinkPad X1 Carbon Gen 9 serial: PF3179W2  
                Mobo: LENOVO model: 20XW00A7TH v: SDK0J40697 WIN serial: L2HF1780345 UEFI: LENOVO v: N32ET71W (1.47 )  
                date: 09/06/2021  
     Battery:   ID-1: BAT0 charge: 57.2 Wh condition: 57.2/57.0 Wh (100%)  
     CPU:       Topology: Quad Core model: 11th Gen Intel Core i7-1165G7 bits: 64 type: MT MCP L2 cache: 12.0 MiB  
                Speed: 925 MHz min/max: 400/4700 MHz Core speeds (MHz): 1: 971 2: 946 3: 670 4: 832 5: 925 6: 916 7: 862 8: 908  
     Graphics:  Device-1: Intel TigerLake-LP GT2 [Iris Xe Graphics] driver: i915 v: kernel  
                Device-2: Chicony Integrated Camera type: USB driver: uvcvideo  
                Display: x11 server: X.Org 1.20.3 driver: modesetting unloaded: fbdev,vesa resolution: 1920x1200~60Hz  
                OpenGL: renderer: Mesa Intel Xe Graphics (TGL GT2) v: 4.6 Mesa 20.2.4  
     Audio:     Device-1: Intel Tiger Lake-LP Smart Sound Audio driver: sof-audio-pci  
                Sound Server: ALSA v: k5.3.18-59.24-default  
     Network:   Device-1: Intel Wi-Fi 6 AX201 driver: iwlwifi  
                IF: wlan0 state: up mac: 10:3d:1c:c4:27:b9  
     Drives:    Local Storage: total: 2.30 TiB used: 495.35 GiB (21.1%)  
                ID-1: /dev/nvme0n1 vendor: Samsung model: MZVL21T0HCLR-00BL7 size: 953.87 GiB  
                ID-2: /dev/sda type: USB vendor: Toshiba model: External USB 3.0 size: 1.36 TiB  
     Partition: ID-1: / size: 24.58 GiB used: 9.68 GiB (39.4%) fs: ext4 dev: /dev/nvme0n1p4  
                ID-2: /home size: 818.93 GiB used: 34.80 GiB (4.2%) fs: ext4 dev: /dev/nvme0n1p7  
     Swap:      ID-1: swap-1 type: partition size: 16.41 GiB used: 1.8 MiB (0.0%) dev: /dev/nvme0n1p6  
     Sensors:   System Temperatures: cpu: 39.0 C mobo: N/A  
                Fan Speeds (RPM): cpu: 0  
     Info:      Processes: 248 Uptime: 1h 36m Memory: 15.36 GiB used: 1.84 GiB (12.0%) Shell: bash inxi: 3.1.00
    My pre-installation research, preparation, and some references:

    After ordering the laptop, and prior to receiving the laptop, I conducted a lot more research into how to setup this laptop in GNU/Linux than I would normally otherwise do. This was because (1) its much newer to the market place than any of my previous laptops, and (2) I am now older and hence retired and I have more time than I had in the past.

    OpenSUSE forum support:

    In the openSUSE forums “Chit Chat” I exchanged some posts, and received excellent suggestions from forum members, on installing openSUSE on this laptop. A link to that thread is here: https://forums.opensuse.org/showthre...Z930-ultrabook

    I posted on the shutdown issue here: https://forums.opensuse.org/showthre...off)?p=3071454

    I posted on the ‘guvcview’ mic record issue here: https://forums.opensuse.org/showthre...-suspected-bug

    Lenovo Linux support:

    Lenovo have a support forum for GNU/Linux on their devices here: https://forums.lenovo.com/t5/Linux-O...ems/ct-p/lx_en

    Future kernel update possibility

    As noted above, in order to better take advantage of features in the TigerLake 1165G7 CPU, that came with this Lenovo X1 Carbon Gen-9, I may decide to update to a kernel that is newer than the one nominally provided with LEAP-15.3. I will post in this blog if I do download and install a kernel from the kernel:stable:backports repository. The intent is that this kernel, together with some apps on openSUSE will provide superior:
    (1) intel graphic support
    (2) CPU video rendering
    (3) thermal/power management

    Comments:

    I ask that anyone with 'help' requests related to this post, start a new post in the openSUSE forum area asking for help, and not post as a comment in this blog thread. Many thanks !

    = = = The END (of this initial series of blog posts) = = =
  4. oldcpu's Avatar
    Thunderbolt port

    I finally got around to testing the transfer speed on one of this Lenovo X1 Carbon Gen9 (running openSUSE LEAP-15.3) Thunderbolt ports. I did this with one Thunderbolt port receiving power and I connected the 2nd Thunderbolt port to an external "SanDisk External Portable SSD" - 500 GB device. Copying from the laptop to this external SSD, I obtain speeds of 310 MiB/sec.

    That is in contrast to the 80 MiB/sec I typically get when transferring files from an external USB-3 hard drive.
    Updated 06-Oct-2021 at 21:23 by oldcpu
  5. oldcpu's Avatar
    I finally got around to testing the bluetooth on this SUSE LEAP-15.3 install on my X1 Carbon Gen9.

    It works fine and synchronized with my old Bose Soundsport (bluetooth) wireless headphones (earbuds) with no problem.

    For information - these are the apps that were automatically installed as part of the LEAP-15.3 install relating to bluetooth:
    Code:
    oldcpu@localhost:~> rpm -qa | grep blue
    bluez-qt-udev-5.76.0-bp153.1.11.x86_64
    libbluetooth3-5.55-3.6.1.x86_64
    kernel-firmware-bluetooth-20210208-2.4.noarch
    bluedevil5-5.18.5-bp153.1.26.x86_64
    pulseaudio-module-bluetooth-14.2-4.2.x86_64
    bluez-5.55-3.6.1.x86_64
    bluez-qt-imports-5.76.0-bp153.1.11.x86_64
    bluedevil5-lang-5.18.5-bp153.1.26.noarch
    I don't know exactly which of those are essential for the functionality - for as noted the default LEAP-15.3 install placed them all on the laptop SSD.

    I'm quite happy that this worked immediately with no issue.
  6. oldcpu's Avatar
    I have been experiencing issues when shutting down this Lenovo X1 Carbon Gen-9, where the operating system will halt, but the power will remain on. Most the time the symptoms are the screen will go black, with an illuminated 'LEAP' at the bottom of the screen, and the CapsLock key flashing - with no response from any keys. Holding the power on/off key down for a dozen seconds then removes the power.

    On occasion the "LEAP" will not show up and the screen will stay a very dark grey, only slightly brighter than a typical black screen, and on occasion the CapsLock will not flash. So care was needed by me to ensure the shutdown takes place properly.

    Updated to 5.14.11 kernel

    I decided to update the kernel from the default 5.3.18 to an experimental 5.14.11 kernel, to see if that would help. I updated to the kernel on the kernel:stable:backport which was the noted 5.14.11. Successful update indication is here:
    Code:
    oldcpu@localhost:~> uname -a
    Linux localhost.localdomain 5.14.11-lp153.2.g834dddd-default #1 SMP Sun Oct 10 08:34:34 UTC 2021 (834dddd) x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
    I was able to install this kernel and keep the secure boot, thanks to assistance from the openSUSE community, as to do such exceeded my experience and I was outside my 'comfort zone'. One can read of that experience in this help thread: https://forums.opensuse.org/showthre...ust-I-disable)

    Unexpected crash/reboot

    After booting with 5.14.11 kernel, I posted on the thread, and then tested audio. While plugging the headphone in/out in a test, and playing a video on youtube, I experienced an unexpected reboot of the laptop. Subsequent checking of the /var/log/messages, /var/log/warn, and the journal (I previous enabled journal persistence) did not indicate the problem of the boot ... although I am suspicious of 'firefox' and the 'sound system' on this LEAP to be the cause of the reboot. The temperature was NOT hot during reboot.

    Intel Media Driver

    I then decided to update the intel-media-driver application that runs with the i915 graphic driver, as it purportedly takes advantage of the intel GPU and delivers superior video encoding. LEAP-15.3 comes with the intel-media-driver-20.3.0-1.41.x86_64. In a community repository ( patrikjakobsson:intel-opencl ) is the intel-media-driver-21.2.3. While its not as new as the intel-media-driver-21.3.5 in github, when I checked the change history between LEAP-15.3's v.20.3.0 and the community 21.2.3, I noted a massive number of updates. I ended up updating:

    Code:
    libva-glx2-2.13.0-lp153.155.1.x86_64
    libva-x11-2-2.13.0-lp153.155.1.x86_64
    libva-wayland2-2.13.0-lp153.155.1.x86_64
    libva-drm2-2.13.0-lp153.155.1.x86_64
    intel-media-driver-21.2.3-lp153.33.2.x86_64
    libva2-2.13.0-lp153.155.1.x86_64
    libigdgmm11-21.2.1-lp153.27.1.x86_64
    I then rebooted (where on this occasion with 5.14.11 kernel the reboot did not freeze) and I now plan to test with this newer setup.

    This is all much more 'cutting edge' than I normally use, so its fair to say that I am out of my comfort zone - but I think I am learning which is typically a good thing.
    .
    Updated 12-Oct-2021 at 22:10 by oldcpu
  7. oldcpu's Avatar
    I updated sof-firmware on this LEAP-15.3 install to a newer version, although its likely not required.

    The sof-firmware is packaged for openSUSE LEAP-15.3 as sof-firmware-1.6.1-2.9. I noted in an openSUSE multimeda:libs repository that version-1.8 was available. I went to github where version 1.9 of the firmware is available for packagers, but that is not yet packaged for openSUSE. I looked at the change history from sof-firmware-1.6.1 to 1.8 and I noted a couple of updates relevant to TigerLake processors:
    * this from the sof-firmware v.1.8 change history: "Improved support for Intel Tiger Lake- and Alder Lake-based devices".
    * this from the sof-firmware v.1.7 change history: "Added support for Intel Tigerlake H and Intel Tiger Lake fix for clock switching".

    As to exactly what that 'added' and 'improved' support provides, I have no idea.

    The multimedia:/libs directory is here:

    Code:
    zypper ar https://download.opensuse.org/repositories/multimedia:/libs/openSUSE_Leap_15.3/ multimedia
    I added the repository via zypper and then installed sof-firmware-1.18 from that repos via YaST Software Management, although I could have done the same update via zypper.

    I rebooted after updating sof-firmware, and played some audio files (and video file with audio) and it seems to work well. I can't thou say that I hear any difference.

    In case anyone is curious, here is a link to the alsa-info information after the update (and after rebooting):
    http://alsa-project.org/db/?f=e4043f...8d55539b240028

    .
  8. oldcpu's Avatar
    Quote Originally Posted by oldcpu
    Unexpected crash/reboot

    After booting with 5.14.11 kernel, I posted on the thread, and then tested audio. While plugging the headphone in/out in a test, and playing a video on youtube, I experienced an unexpected reboot of the laptop. Subsequent checking of the /var/log/messages, /var/log/warn, and the journal (I previous enabled journal persistence) did not indicate the problem of the boot ... although I am suspicious of 'firefox' and the 'sound system' on this LEAP to be the cause of the reboot. The temperature was NOT hot during reboot.
    Operating system Crashes/Reboots

    One day ago, while testing the laptop, I had about a dozen immediate crash/reboots when playing YouTube videos with MozillaFirefox. When the crash occured the laptop screen would immediately go black, and then a couple of seconds later a reboot would start. I noted when playing YouTube videos from the Chrome browser I did not have an application nor an operating system crash.

    I attempted changing the Mozilla-Firefox-78.13.0 to the slightly different Mozilla-Firefox-78.10.0 from a LEAP multimedia repository, but I still obtained the same behaviour.
    Code:
    https://download.opensuse.org/repositories/multimedia:/libs/openSUSE_Leap_15.3/
    This morning I again tested trying to obtain the crash, playing YouTube videos in Chrome for over an hour, and there were no crashes. There being no crashes with Chrome gave me confidence the issue was not hardware.

    I then updated the MozillaFirefox to v.93.0 in the LEAP-15.3 Mozilla 3rd party repository:
    Code:
    https://download.opensuse.org/repositories/mozilla/openSUSE_Leap_15.3/
    This installed:
    Code:
    MozillaFirefox-93.0-lp153.4.1.x86_64        
    mozilla-nss-3.70-lp153.1.2.x86_64         
    libsoftokn3-hmac-3.70-lp153.1.2.x86_64        
    libsoftokn3-3.70-lp153.1.2.x86_64           
    libfreebl3-hmac-3.70-lp153.1.2.x86_64     
    libfreebl3-3.70-lp153.1.2.x86_64
    I subsequently played YouTube videos for over 2 hours in MozillaFirefox-93.0, and there have been no crashes.

    I will continue to watch this, but its possible this issue is either solved, or made far less likely to occur.

    Operating System Shutdown works better now (after kernel update)

    I have yet to have one bad shutdown, nor a failed reboot, after the kernel update from v.5.3.18 to v.5.14.11 (reported above). Due to the above noted unexpected/crashes in openSUSE, yesterday I performed over two dozen reboots or laptop shutdowns. Each and everyone appeared to function correctly, with both reboots (without the previous freeze at operating system halt in the middle of the reboot) and shutdowns (include power removed) working properly.

    Hence it is possible the kernel update to v.5.14.11 solved the shower shutdown issue.

    In both cases I am not certain the problem has been solved, and I will continue to monitor this over the coming weeks.
    .
  9. oldcpu's Avatar
    I was pleased that gimagereader packaged by our forum administrator Malcolmlewis works on this new openSUSE LEAP-15.3 install on my Lenovo X1 Carbon Gen9.

    I blogged about this here: openSUSE-12.1 to openSUSE Leap-15.3 with gImageReader and Tesseract

    Many thanks to Malcolm for his efforts here, going back many years.
  10. oldcpu's Avatar
    I purchased a number of external accessories (3rd market supplier instead of buying Lenovo) to go with this Lenovo X1 Carbon Gen-9. Two of the accessories have arrived.

    Thunderbolt (Type-C connector) to RJ-45 adapter.



    The adapter/dongle I purchased works well with openSUSE-LEAP-15.3 GNU/Linux.


    lsusb gives:
    Code:
    Bus 002 Device 002: ID 0bda:8153 Realtek Semiconductor Corp. RTL8153 Gigabit Ethernet Adapter
    It was fairly inexpensive, with my ordering via mail order (to here in Thailand). I tested it on my system and it worked fine. According to information on the Intenet (linux-hardware.org), this device works with kernels commencing with the very old kernel 3.11.


    Type-C to Type-A USB adapter

    This laptop comes with two type-A USB ports, and with two type-C Thunderbird-4 ports. On my use of the laptop, often one of the type-C is used providing power to the laptop, and I need another USB for my USB-wireless-mouse (maybe eventually I will move to a bluetooth mouse). Hence if I do that, it only leaves available one-type-A and one-type-C port available for other use ... On occasion I then like to copy data from one external drive to another external drive (where these external drives have type-A male cables). Hence I wanted the means to easily make one of the Lenovo laptop's type-C Thunderbolts available to a type-A connector to a hard drive.

    Hence I decided to procure a Type-C to Type-A adapter.


    .


    I ended up with this basic device, which was surprisingly inexpensive, and it works well. I tested it with Thunderbolt (type-C port) on Laptop to:
    • USB-Wireless mouse - worked well
    • USB-2.0 memory stick - worked well
    • USB-3.0 memory stick - worked well
    • 2TB USB-3.0 external hard drive (Toshiba) - worked well


    In particular I was keen to see if it would mount the 2TB USB-3.0 external hard drive, as sometimes if a long cable is used there may be not enough power to switch-on such an external device. But it worked nicely.

    ...

    I still have a couple of more accessories coming:
    • a USB hub: (with 1xRJ45, 3xUSB-3.0 (type-C), 1xMicro-B (for power if required))
    • neoprene sleeve - to protect the laptop when traveling. I typically use such as a double layer, even when laptop is in a computer bag or in a backpack.
  11. pbojczuk's Avatar
    I decided to play safe and do the firmware update from Windows-10.
    I know X1 is not x260, which I bought this week and I did not start on it with openSUSE but with Debian Testing (bookworm), but when I saw after the first log on to the fresh installation the following:
    https://i.imgur.com/413JHx7.png

    I could not resist the urge and clicked it. And with the next reboot the firmware was upgraded successfully.

    Is it a sufficient proof that we can nowadays perform the upgrade from non-NT like systems? Well, I would say it is still a single experience.
  12. oldcpu's Avatar
    Quote Originally Posted by pbojczuk
    I know X1 is not x260, which I bought this week and I did not start on it with openSUSE but with Debian Testing (bookworm), but when I saw after the first log on to the fresh installation the following:
    https://i.imgur.com/413JHx7.png

    I could not resist the urge and clicked it. And with the next reboot the firmware was upgraded successfully.

    Is it a sufficient proof that we can nowadays perform the upgrade from non-NT like systems? Well, I would say it is still a single experience.
    I saw your blog post ( read it with Chrome and Google translate). Glad to read it worked ok !

    Perhaps in the future I may get more 'ambitious' and do the next BIOS update to my Lenovo from GNU/Linux. Currently thou I have the most up to date BIOS (v.1.47) for my Lenovo X1 Carbon generation-9.

    At the moment I am struggling with occasional crash/reboots .. and earlier today conducted a very large update, from the X11 : XOrg repository (doing a 'switch system packages to this repos' to that repository). This is NOT something I would normally do as that software is pretty cutting edge, but I am adopting rather drastic measures to find software that works better with this relative new TigerLake processor with its Iris Xe Graphics.

    I plan to blog again about this update, after I have had the opportunity to assess if it is stable.
    .
  13. oldcpu's Avatar
    Up until a day ago, I have still been experiencing LEAP-15.3 crash/reboots, most often (but not always) when using Firefox.

    I tried a few things to resolve this:

    Disabled Firefox setting for hardware acceleration:

    Following an openSUSE forum suggestion, I deselected "use hardware acceleration when available" in Firefox-93.0 but I do not see any improvement wrt crash/reboot prevention. I was still obtaining the occasional LEAP-15.3 crash/reboot.

    Updated X-Windows:

    I finally was sufficiently annoyed with the crash/reboots, that I backed up the data off of the ultrabooks SSD drive (where given this is a new install there was not too much to backup) and did a Full repository vendor change to X11 : XOrg repo. That updated something like 211 packages to more cutting edge X-Window versions. My research into change history suggested that update would obtain many fixes relevant to TigerLake CPU and Iris Xe Graphics associated with that CPU.

    Here is the graphics part from 'inxi' :
    Code:
    Graphics:  Device-1: Intel TigerLake-LP GT2 [Iris Xe Graphics] driver: i915 v: kernel
               Device-2: Chicony Integrated Camera type: USB driver: uvcvideo
               Display: x11 server: X.Org 1.20.13 driver: loaded: modesetting unloaded: fbdev,vesa resolution: 1920x1200~60Hz
               OpenGL: renderer: Mesa Intel Xe Graphics (TGL GT2) v: 4.6 Mesa 21.2.4
    This is the repository that I added:
    Code:
     https://download.opensuse.org/repositories/X11:/XOrg/openSUSE_Leap_15.3/
    I note it updated the version of Mesa from the previous v.20.2.4 to a newer 21.2.4.

    However I still encountered the occasional crash/reboot - so the XWindow update did not sort the issue.

    Ran Memory test

    I downloaded the memtest86 (from https://www.memtest86.com/ ) , created their boot USB, booted the Lenovo X1 Carbon Generation-9 laptop to that USB and ran the memtest for 2 hours on 3 separate occasions. It passed that short test each time. This gives me some confidence this is not a hardware issue.

    I then began to ask myself - could there be something in the BIOS firmware settings that is not compatible with LEAP-15.3?

    BIOS tuning

    BIOS: Linux S3 - I previous had the BIOS under "Power > Sleep State" set to "Windows 10 and Linux" and I changed that to "Linux S3" to see if that made any difference. Purportedly "Windows 10 and Linux" setting is the "Optimized Sleep State for Windows 10 and versions of Linux that are compatible with Suspend-to-Idle". I would have thought that applied to openSUSE.

    I thus then changed it and set to "Linux S3" where this is the "Optimized Sleep State for versions of Linux that are not compatible with Suspend-to-Idle".

    However later the next day, I again experienced an unexplained LEAP-15.3 crash/reboot, so it appears that BIOS setting change made no difference

    BIOS: Network settings

    In BIOS I then restored the 'Network' settings to the default values that were in place when the laptop was delivered. This meant I changed back:
    • "Wake on LAN from Dock" from OFF to ON
    • "Lenovo Cloud Services" from OFF to ON
    • "UEFI IPv4 Network Stack" from OFF to ON
    • "UEFI IPv6 Netowor Stack" from OFF to ON

    Frankly, I think I have no need for any of those to be ON, but at this point I am looking for a possible Firmware incompabibilty with my openSUSE LEAP-15.3 which is causing random crash/reboots.

    BIOS: Power management

    During the same BIOS boot as making the above network changes, I went to BIOS under Config > Power, and I changed 'CPU Power Management' to OFF from the default of "ON". I note this "Enables or Disables the power saving feature that stop the microprocessor clock automatically when there are no system activities. Normally, it is not necessary to change this setting."

    My suspicion is this could be the main issue that was causing the problem

    LEAP-15.3 network setting
    - I also after rebooting, changed my host name from the default 'localhost' to 'X1-Carbon-G9'. I serious doubt that has any bearing on the Crash/reboot issue, but I note this change here, just to be complete.

    Results

    Its over a day later and I have yet to experience another crash/reboot. This is the longest I have gone thus far without experiencing such, but I think it is too soon to tell. Maybe if after a couple of weeks of not experiencing such, I can say that something I did fixed this.

    If I get to that point, I may start one by one undoing the things that I most recently did, to see if undoing one brings back the 'crash/reboot' issue.
    .
  14. oldcpu's Avatar
    USB 5-in-1 Hub (very small in size)

    Another of my Lenovo X1 Carbon's accessories arrived. In this case the "5-in-1 USB-C Hub" by Ention that I ordered.

    Front of the box

    This hub has a male USB-C type connection that, according to the box, one can plug into one's laptop, desktop computer, and even a mobile phone.
    .
    Back of the box

    The hub's ports include:
    • 3 x USB-3.0 ports
    • 1 x RJ-45 ethernet port (for wired LAN/internet access)
    • 1 x Micro-B port (for data access, and also for providing power to the hub - power adapter not provided).


    The ethernet supports 10/100/1000 Mbs speed (ie gigabit speeds).

    Image of the hub (note small size of coin) (showing 3 x USB-3.0 ports)

    The hub is very small and very light. I confess I did not appreciate how small and how light it would be. This is a good thing ! (for a laptop).

    One of my tests was to plug it into my Xiaomi Mi-8 smartphone, where I had a USB stick plugged into the hub. My smartphone was then able to access the files on the USB stick (via this hub).

    I also plugged the hub into a female Thunderbolt-4 port on my Lenovo X1 Carbon generation-9 laptop (running openSUSE LEAP-15.3 GNU/Linux, with the cutting edge 5.14.11 kernel). I tested the USB ports a bit, and the USB-3.0 ports proved compatable with:
    • an external 2 TB Toshiba hard drive (this pleasantly surprised me as I was not convinced the hub would have sufficient power to power the external hard drive)
    • my Xiaomi Mi-8 smartphone (via a USB-c cable between my phone and the hub)
    • my USB wireless mouse.

    I have not yet tested the hub's Ethernet, nor the hub's micro-USB-2.0 port. I do believe thou the internet/LAN will work.

    When I had the hub plugged into my GNU/Linux laptop, I ran 'lsusb' and I note the following 3 additional USB ports:
    Code:
    Bus 003 Device 008: ID 2109:2817 VIA Labs, Inc. USB2.0 Hub   
    Bus 002 Device 005: ID 0bda:8153 Realtek Semiconductor Corp. RTL8153 Gigabit Ethernet Adapter
    Bus 002 Device 003: ID 2109:0817 VIA Labs, Inc. USB3.0 Hub
    I note the 0bda:8153 for the RJ-45. I previous (above) proved compatibility with a Vention USB-C to Ethernet adapter that my GNU/Linux supports RTL8153 (with the driver already included in this Linux Operating System). Note that the Vendor-ID/Product-ID (0bda:8153) is identical to that of the USB-C to Ethernet adapter. That gives me confidence of compatibility since I proved the adapter of same vendor/product-ID worked already.
  15. oldcpu's Avatar
    I successfully installed a Bluetooth rechargeable mouse to work with this Lenovo X1 Carbon Generation-9 laptop, and it works well.



    The mouse is a (Chinese manufacturer) Inphic PM6BS Three mode mouse, where it can connect to one's PC via either:
    • 2.4 GHz wireless (the mouse comes with a USB wireless receiver), or
    • Bluetooth-3.0, or
    • Bluetooth-5.0


    Instructions for the mouse came in many languages: Chinese, Italian, Spanish, German, French and English language. According to the very short/succinct manual that came with the mouse, it is compatible with GNU/Linux versions that have a kernel of 2.6+ .




    The mouse is a bit larger than I am normally used to, but functionally its much more capable than the dirt cheap 2.4GHz wireless mouse that I have been using to date.
    • Dimensions : 4.7 x 3.2 x 1.4 inches
    • Weight: 3.68 ounces (about 0.1 kg).


    From lsusb, the 2.4 GHZ wireless receiver is a
    Code:
    Bus 003 Device 010: ID 1ea7:0064 SHARKOON Technologies GmbH 2.4GHz Wireless rechargeable vertical mouse [More&Better]
    I have not tried to use this receiver (with the 2.4GHz wireless) yet, as the Bluetooth-5.0 interface works fine. I do note that Linux hardware.org claims GNU/Linux compatibility with the 2.4GHz wireless receiver.

    I connected from a KDE desktop on LEAP-15.3 to this mouse using Bluetooth-5.0. It was incredibly easy to setup ... Before use, I initially charged it for only about 30-minutes by plugging it into a USB port on my laptop (I may need to charge it more later).

    I then in my Lenovo X1 Carbon's LEAP-15.3 KDE desktop clicked on the Bluetooth icon (bottom right corner icon) and I selected to add a Bluetooth device. Then on the mouse I switched its ON/OFF switch to ON.



    The mouse switched on in 2.4GZ wireless mode, so I pressed the 'mode selector switch' on the mouse, and it Toggled to the 'BT-5.0' setting (with a green light).



    I looked at my laptop's Bluetooth display, and it was showing a BT-5.0 mouse. I selected that, the pairing took place automatically, and the mouse worked.

    The advertisement website for the mouse states it supports 1000/1200/1600DPI. I haven't tried to change the DPI settings as of yet. The manual says nothing about switching DPI.

    TEST - Bose Sound Sport earbuds and Inphic PM6BS simultaneous


    While using this Bluetooth mouse, I then switched on my Bose Sound Sport Bluetooth earbuds. LEAP-15.3 immediately connected to the Earbuds. I then obtained great music from my Lenovo X1 Carbon Generation-9, while at the same time using this Inphic PM6BS Bluetooth mouse (using BT-5.0 with the mouse).
  16. oldcpu's Avatar
    I read on the internet accounts of users who would purchase a Lenovo X1 Carbon Generation-9, and instead of going for a large SSD (such as a 1TB or 2TB) they would go for a smaller SSD (256GB SSD), with a significant savings in the cost of the Lenovo laptop.

    Then they would purchase a much larger 3rd party compatible SSD of the size they wanted (for an inexpensive price), such as 1TB (or even 2GB) and swap out the Lenovo provided 256 GB SSD with the much larger capacity 3rd party SSD that they purchased. Of course they need to read the specs carefully, to ensure they purchase an SSD that is compatible with their laptop, and also obtain a high performance SSD. They need to be aware of the difference of SATA vs PCIe / nvme. And also the difference between generation 3 and 4 nvme/SSDs. And they would need to be comfortable in re-installing the operating system of their choice on the newer larger SSD.

    This swap SSD approach was not applicable to me, as I purchased a 'fixed' Lenovo X1 Carbon generation-9 configuration (with a 1TB SSD), and I didn't have a choice wrt the SSD configuration (ie no choice to save money by going for a smaller capacity SSD).

    Still, I was curious as to what SSD I ended up with. So I ran some commands from a bash shell on my Lenovo X1 Carbon Generation 9 and I learned the following:

    The SSD in my Lenovo (as purchased) is a Samsung SSD PM9A1 NVMe 1TB. My research indicated this is a generation-4 SSD/nvme.

    Some commands I sent from a bash shell
    Code:
    oldcpu@X1-Carbon-G9:~> /sbin/lspci | grep SSD
    04:00.0 Non-Volatile memory controller: Samsung Electronics Co Ltd NVMe SSD Controller PM9A1/PM9A3/980PRO
    Code:
    X1-Carbon-G9:/home/oldcpu # lspci -vv -s 04:00.0 | grep "LnkSta:"
                 LnkSta: Speed 16GT/s, Width x4, TrErr- Train- SlotClk+ DLActive- BWMgmt- ABWMgmt-
    and I note also that from the app 'inxi' I obtain:
    Code:
    ID-1: /dev/nvme0n1 vendor: Samsung model: MZVL21T0HCLR-00BL7 size: 953.87 GiB
    and for more of the same with a different command:
    Code:
    X1-Carbon-G9:/home/oldcpu # nvme list
    Node             SN                   Model                                    Namespace Usage                      Format           FW Rev  
    ---------------- -------------------- ---------------------------------------- --------- -------------------------- ---------------- --------
    /dev/nvme0n1     S64PNF0R331658       SAMSUNG MZVL21T0HCLR-00BL7               1         172.16  GB /   1.02  TB    512   B +  0 B   7L2QGXA7
    and for more detalied information:
    Code:
    oldcpu@X1-Carbon-G9:~> lsblk -o NAME,FSTYPE,LABEL,MOUNTPOINT,SIZE,MODEL
    NAME        FSTYPE    LABEL       MOUNTPOINT                      SIZE MODEL
    nvme0n1                                                         953.9G SAMSUNG MZVL21T0HCLR-00BL7
    ├─nvme0n1p1 vfat      SYSTEM      /boot/efi                       260M 
    ├─nvme0n1p2                                                        16M 
    ├─nvme0n1p3 BitLocker                                            78.1G 
    ├─nvme0n1p4 ext4      root        /                              25.1G 
    ├─nvme0n1p5 ntfs      WinRE_DRV                                  1000M 
    ├─nvme0n1p6 swap      swap        [SWAP]                         16.4G 
    └─nvme0n1p7 ext4      home        /home                           833G
    To dig up the above commands I found many references, ... where here is one of the sites I visited to an older year 2017 guide from a user's blog: https://www.percona.com/blog/2017/02...-flash-health/
  17. oldcpu's Avatar
    Quote Originally Posted by oldcpu
    Up until a day ago, I have still been experiencing LEAP-15.3 crash/reboots, most often (but not always) when using Firefox.
    ....

    BIOS: Power management

    During the same BIOS boot as making the above network changes, I went to BIOS under Config > Power, and I changed 'CPU Power Management' to OFF from the default of "ON". I note this "Enables or Disables the power saving feature that stop the microprocessor clock automatically when there are no system activities. Normally, it is not necessary to change this setting."
    ....
    Its over a day later and I have yet to experience another crash/reboot. This is the longest I have gone thus far without experiencing such, but I think it is too soon to tell. Maybe if after a couple of weeks of not experiencing such, I can say that something I did fixed this.

    If I get to that point, I may start one by one undoing the things that I most recently did, to see if undoing one brings back the 'crash/reboot' issue.
    .
    Its been a few weeks, and I have yet to experience a crash/reboot ... so it does appear the BIOS tuning likely fixed the annoying crash/reboot issue that I had with this new X1C9 (X1 Carbon Generation-9) laptop. I can't yet point to exactly what BIOS change was the fix. I have not yet got around to undoing the BIOS changes one by one to see which was the actual fix - as I have other priorities on a different computer, at present time.

    Still - I am most happy this crash/reboot issue was fixed, as it was most disconcerting.
  18. oldcpu's Avatar
    I am not knowledgeable on power management for laptops, as typically I use my laptop sparingly - nominally only when travelling. When at home I use a desktop PC most of the time. I am also NOT a power user - and this laptop is a massive upgrade for me in computer processing power.

    Still, I note from reading the Lenovo GNU/Linux support forum (for GNU/Linux distributions other than openSUSE), that power management of a laptop, to try and extract the maxiumum performance from a laptop, appears to be a very important matter for some users, and I have been reading some of the threads on this topic with curiousity. Here is one sample Lenovo thread on this topic of Power management, where other GNU/Linux distros appear to prefer a different power management app approach than openSUSE LEAP-15.3.

    Also, an interesting article on GNU/Linux power management is this Linux Journaal article:
    https://www.linuxjournal.com/content...x-command-line

    I tried out some of the commands noted (where the X1C9 battery was fully charged at the time and the laptop plugged in to A/C power):
    Code:
    oldcpu@X1-Carbon-G9:~> upower -i `upower -e | grep 'BAT'`
      native-path:          BAT0
      vendor:               Celxpert
      model:                5B10W13974
      serial:               5557
      power supply:         yes
      updated:              Wed 10 Nov 2021 10:12:02 AM +07 (56 seconds ago)
      has history:          yes
      has statistics:       yes
      battery
        present:             yes
        rechargeable:        yes
        state:               fully-charged
        warning-level:       none
        energy:              57.38 Wh
        energy-empty:        0 Wh
        energy-full:         57.38 Wh
        energy-full-design:  57 Wh
        energy-rate:         3.076 W
        voltage:             17.332 V
        percentage:          100%
        capacity:            100%
        technology:          lithium-polymer
        icon-name:          'battery-full-charged-symbolic'
    oldcpu@X1-Carbon-G9:~>
    
    oldcpu@X1-Carbon-G9:~> upower -i $(upower -e | grep BAT) | grep --color=never -E "state|to\ full|to\ empty|percentage"
        state:               fully-charged
        percentage:          100%
    oldcpu@X1-Carbon-G9:~>
    
    oldcpu@X1-Carbon-G9:~> cat /sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/capacity
    100
    oldcpu@X1-Carbon-G9:~>
    OpenSUSE LEAP-15.3 uses TLP-1.3.1 as a tool to save battery power. Some information on "TLP" can be found here: https://linrunner.de/tlp/ . On that site I note TLP-1.4 was released on 24-Sept-2021. According to that site, the highlights of v.1-4 are:
    • Extended charge threshold support for laptops with a suitable kernel driver: ASUS, Huawei, LG, Lenovo (non-ThinkPad series), Samsung
    • Select a platform profile to control system operating characteristics around power/performance levels, thermal and fan speed
    • Enable Intel CPU HWP dynamic boost. I note "HWP" is "hardware-managed P-states" where I believe "P-states" are related to performance scaling of a CPU, and hence "HWP does the frequency scaling inside the CPU". I note "Sky Lake" CPUs can use this feature, and I suspect that the Tiger Lake CPU on my Lenovo X1C9 may support HWP, but I am not certain.

    Its not clear to me if I would obtain a significant (or even moderate) improvement from upgrading to that. At present thou this is all a mute point as TLP-1.4 is not yet packaged for openSUSE.

    On this topic, I note that LEAP-15.3 also uses the KDE Power Management module powerdevil5-5.18.5.

    As seen from the above examples of upower command, LEAP-15.3 also has the program upower-0.99.11-2.11 installed.

    I found it interesting that the program acpi is not nominally installed on my Lenovo X1C9, although acpi-1.7 is in the openSUSE-LEAP-15.3 OSS repository. Other battery management programs in the OSS repository not installed (where note not all of which are compatible with TLP) are programs such as laptop-mode-tools-1.69.2, powerd-2.0.2-1.1 (UPS monitoring daemon) and powerstat-0.02.18 (Laptop monitoring daemon). Further thermal management programs available in OSS repository, but not installed (and again one needs to be careful of possible conflicts with TLP) are themald-1.6 and tmon-1.0. Various other distros use thermald and not TLP, but at the moment I am not convinced that a better approach, as TLP appears to work well for me on this X1C9.

    After upgrading to the 5.14.11 kernel on LEAP-15.3 (as opposed to the older 5.3.18 kernel that comes with LEAP-15.3), I have no complaints with respect to power management. I have no desire at present time to conduct further kernel updates unless I believe appropriate for security reasons, or if I spot an aspect specific to my Laptop in a newer kernel change log.
    Updated 09-Nov-2021 at 21:28 by oldcpu
  19. oldcpu's Avatar
    Quote Originally Posted by oldcpu
    OpenSUSE LEAP-15.3 uses TLP-1.3.1 as a tool to save battery power.
    Further surfing, and I noted this page for openSUSE on the TLP page: https://linrunner.de/tlp/installation/opensuse.html

    They recommend:
    The output of tlp-stat -b(version 1.2.2 or higher recommended) will guide you which external kernel module is required.

    So I ran that command as root and I obtained:
    Code:
    X1-Carbon-G9:/home/oldcpu # tlp-stat -b 
    --- TLP 1.3.1 -------------------------------------------- 
    
    +++ Battery Features: Charge Thresholds and Recalibrate 
    natacpi    = active (data, thresholds) 
    tpacpi-bat = inactive (kernel module 'acpi_call' not installed) 
    tp-smapi   = inactive (ThinkPad not supported) 
    
    +++ ThinkPad Battery Status: BAT0 
    /sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/manufacturer                   = Celxpert 
    /sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/model_name                     = 5B10W13974 
    /sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/cycle_count                    =      5 
    /sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/energy_full_design             =  57000 [mWh] 
    /sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/energy_full                    =  57380 [mWh] 
    /sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/energy_now                     =  57380 [mWh] 
    /sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/power_now                      =      0 [mW] 
    /sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/status                         = Full 
    
    /sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/charge_start_threshold         =     96 [%] 
    /sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/charge_stop_threshold          =    100 [%] 
    
    Charge                                                      =  100.0 [%] 
    Capacity                                                    =  100.7 [%] 
    
    +++ Recommendations 
    * Install acpi_call kernel module for ThinkPad battery recalibration
    So I may look into install acpi_call ( https://software.opensuse.org/package/acpi_call ) and loading the noted kernel module ... although I may research this some more first.
  20. karlmistelberger's Avatar
    Did you ever consider real stress testing?

    Intel® oneAPI Math Kernel Library (oneMKL) Benchmarks Suite

    https://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/developer/articles/technical/onemkl-benchmarks-suite.html
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